This chapter assesses the evolution of European Union (EU) development policies during 2000. It concentrates on the terms on which aid has been delivered to the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states as defined by the Lomé Convention and its successor, the Cotonou Agreement. The chapter undertakes a comparative assessment of these changes in the light of wider donor policies towards developing countries. It focuses on the policies of the World Bank. The chapter explores whether the claimed uniqueness of the original relationship with the ACP countries has given way to a more uniform stance among donors. It discusses the development of an EU approach to the support of structural adjustment programmes in the ACP states in Lomé IV. The chapter presents the introduction of 'political conditionality' into Lomé in the 1990s. It describes the recasting of EU development cooperation in the negotiations for the Cotonou Agreement signed in 2000.
The chapter presents an empirically original account of the evolution of UK Labour Party international development policy, and Africa’s place within that, in the Party’s years of opposition from 2010–17. The chapter explores the significant processes of policy development which took place during these years and draws on archival research and interviews with key politicians. It argues that the Party has used the Sustainable Development Goals and a renewed focus on inequality to move policy beyond the Blair–Brown era. The chapter identifies constraints on this policy rethinking, including internal party politics and processes, rapid turnovers of shadow secretaries of state and an increasingly hostile external environment. Continuing tensions in policy remain to be resolved if Labour is to meet the challenge of developing an effective left-of-centre policy programme for Africa.