Madrid on the move is a full-length monograph on illustrated print culture and
the urban experience in nineteenth-century Spain. It provides a fresh account of
modernity by looking beyond its canonical texts, artworks, and locations and
exploring what being modern meant to people in their daily lives. The nineteenth
century marked a crucial moment for cities across the West. Urbanisation,
technological innovations, and the development of a mass culture yielded new
forms of spectatorship and experiencing city life. Madrid underwent these
processes just as many other European capitals did, and, as a result, the
effects of urban and social change were at the heart of the growing number of
circulating images and texts. Rather than shifting the loci of modernity from
Paris or London to Madrid, this book decentres the concept and explains the
modern experience as part of a more fluid, wider phenomenon. Meanings of the
modern were not only dictated by linguistic authorities and urban technocrats;
they were discussed, lived, and constructed on a daily basis. Cultural actors
and audiences continuously redefined what being modern entailed and explored the
links between the local and the global, two concepts and contexts that were
being conceived and perceived as inseparable. Across images and printed media –
from illustrated magazines, caricatures, and postcards to journalistic writing,
guidebooks, and maps – what surfaced was an acute awareness of the demands of
modernisation and a feeling of forming part of (whether half-heartedly or with
conviction) an increasingly entangled world.
Introducing contingency and that which did not happen as necessary and revealing
conditions both of Romanticism itself and of our critical relationship with it,
Counterfactual Romanticism explores the affordances of counterfactualism as a
heuristic and as an imaginative tool. Innovatively extending counterfactual
thought experiments from history and the social sciences to literary
historiography and literary criticism and theory, the volume reveals the ways in
which the shapes of Romanticism are conditioned by that which did not come to
pass. Exploring – and creatively performing – various modalities of
counterfactual speculation and inquiry across a range of Romantic-period
authors, genres and concerns, and identifying the Romantic credentials of
counterfactual thought, the introduction and eleven chapters in this collection
offer a radical new purchase on literary history, on the relationship between
history and fiction, on our historicist methods to date – and thus on the
Romanticisms we (think we) have inherited. Counterfactual Romanticism provides a
ground-breaking method of re-reading literary pasts and our own reading
presents; in the process, literary production, texts and reading practices are
unfossilised and defamiliarised. To emancipate the counterfactual imagination
and embrace the counterfactual turn and its provocations is to reveal the
literary multiverse and quantum field within which our far-from-inevitable
literary inheritance is located.
Over the past quarter of a century, the study of nineteenth-century Hispanic culture and society has undergone two major shifts. The first was a rejection of 'the myth of backwardness', a notion that these cultures and societies were exceptions that trailed behind the wider West.. The second trend was a critical focus on a core triad of nation, gender and representation. This volume of essays provides a strong focus for the exploration and stimulation of substantial new areas of inquiry. The shared concern is with how members of the cultural and intellectual elite in the nineteenth century conceived or undertook major activities that shaped their lives. The volume looks at how people did things without necessarily framing questions of motive or incentive in terms that would bring the debate back to a master system of gender, racial, ethnographic, or national proportions. It reviews some key temporal dilemmas faced by a range of nineteenth-century Spanish writers. The volume explores how they employed a series of narrative and rhetorical techniques to articulate the consequent complexities. It also looks at how a number of religious figures negotiated the relationship between politics and religion in nineteenth-century Spain. The volume concentrates on a spectrum of writings and practices within popular literature that reflect on good and bad conduct in Spain through the nineteenth century. Among other topics, it provides information on how to be a man, be a writer for the press, a cultural entrepreneur, an intellectual, and a colonial soldier.
Marie Duval: Maverick Victorian cartoonist offers the first critical appraisal of
the work of Marie Duval (Isabelle Émilie de Tessier [1847–90]), one of the most
unusual, pioneering and visionary cartoonists of the later nineteenth
century. Taking a critical theory approach, the book discusses key themes
and practices of Duval’s vision and production, relative to the wider historic
social, cultural and economic environments in which her work was made,
distributed and read. It identifies Duval as an exemplary radical practitioner
in an urban media environment, in which new professional definitions were being
created, and in which new congruence between performance, illustration,
narrative drawing and novels emerged. The book divides into two sections: Work
and Depicting and Performing, interrogating the relationships between the
developing practices and the developing forms of the visual cultures of print,
story-telling, drawing and stage performance. On one hand, the book focuses on
the creation of new types of work by women and gendered questions of authorship
in the attribution of work, and on the other, the book highlights the style of
Duval’s drawings relative to both the visual conventions of theatre production
and the significance of the visualisation of amateurism and vulgarity. The book
pays critical attention to Duval the practitioner and to her work, establishing
her as a unique but exemplary figure in the foundational development of a
culture of print, visualisation and narrative drawing in English, in a
transformational period of the nineteenth century.
Engine of Modernity: The Omnibus and Urban Culture in Nineteenth-Century Paris examines the connection between public transportation and popular culture in nineteenth-century Paris through a focus on the omnibus - a horse-drawn vehicle for mass urban transport which enabled contact across lines of class and gender. A major advancement in urban locomotion, the omnibus generated innovations in social practices by compelling passengers of diverse backgrounds to interact within the vehicle’s close confines. Although the omnibus itself did not actually have an engine, its arrival on the streets of Paris and in the pages of popular literature acted as a motor for a fundamental cultural shift in how people thought about the city, its social life, and its artistic representations. At the intersection of literary criticism and cultural history, Engine of Modernity argues that for nineteenth-century French writers and artists, the omnibus was much more than a mode of transportation. It became a metaphor through which to explore evolving social dynamics of class and gender, meditate on the meaning of progress and change, and reflect on one’s own literary and artistic practices.
Pasts at play examines nineteenth-century children as active consumers of a variety of British pasts, from the biblical and classical to the medieval and early modern. This interdisciplinary collection bridges different disciplinary approaches to chart shifting markets for historical education between 1750 and 1914: a critical period in the development of children's culture, as children became target consumers for publishers. Boys and girls across the social classes often experienced different pasts simultaneously for the purpose of amusement and instruction. Play provides a dynamic lens through which to explore children’s interaction with the past as a didactic vehicle. Encompassing the past as both subject and site for production and consumption of earlier pasts (historical, mythical or imagined), each contributor reconstructs children’s encounters with different media to uncover the cultural work of individual pasts and exposes the key role of playfulness in the British historical imagination. These ten essays argue that only through exploring the variety of media and different pasts marketed to children can we fully understand the scope of children’s interactions with the past. Sources, from games to guidebooks and puzzles to pageants, represent the range of visual, performative, material and textual cultures analysed here to develop fresh methodologies and new perspectives on children’s culture and the uses of the past. Bringing together scholars from across a range of disciplines, including Classics, English and History, this volume is for researchers and students interested in the afterlives of the past, the history of education, and child consumerism and interaction.
The book considers all of Elizabeth Siddal’s poems in the contemporary critical
context of the ongoing retrieval and re-evaluation of nineteenth-century women’s
poetry. More significantly, it close reads the texts alongside those of five
male authors, Dante Rossetti, Swinburne, Tennyson, Ruskin and Keats, who were
either personally known to her or were a source of influence or inspiration.
Modern scholarship has tended to include female voices in single-sex anthologies
which stress their unique collective contribution but shield them from
comparison with the much larger male canon, which denies lesser-known poets like
Siddal an augmented critical reception. Association with these ‘greats’ of
Victorian and Romantic literature enhances and consolidates her reputation and
encourages alternative readings of poems that at first glance can appear slight,
self-indulgent and derivative. The work of contemporary female poets, notably
Christina Rossetti and Elizabeth Barrett Browning is used to evaluate the
distinctive and meritorious nature of Siddal’s oeuvre and all the poems are read
with reference to the prevailing social, religious and political contexts that
had a bearing on their construction and reception. As Siddal’s poems are very
short and ambiguous their initial impression is visual, making the inclusion of
certain of her artwork an informative entrée to chapters that consider her
poetic dialogue with the interplay of erotic and spiritual love, the ballad
tradition, the Romantic conception of the physical and spectral body, and the
nineteenth-century ‘woman question’ while reflecting upon the paradoxes and
dualisms that pervade her work.
This book explores the range of ways in which the two leading sensation authors of the 1860s, Mary Elizabeth Braddon and Wilkie Collins, engaged with nineteenth-century ideas about how the personality is formed and the extent to which it can be influenced either by the subject or by others. Innovative readings of Braddon’s and Collins’s sensation novels – some of them canonical, others less well-known – demonstrate how they reflect, employ, and challenge Victorian theories of heredity, degeneration, willpower, inherent constitution, education, insanity, upbringing and social circumstance. Far from presenting a reductive depiction of ‘nature’ versus ‘nurture’, Braddon and Collins show the creation of character to be a complex interplay of internal and external factors that are as much reliant on chance as on the efforts of the people who try to exert control over an individual’s development. Their works raise challenging questions about responsibility and self-determinism and, as the analyses of these texts reveals, demonstrate an acute awareness that the way in which character formation is understood fundamentally influences the way people (both in fiction and reality) are perceived, judged and treated. Drawing on material from a variety of genres, including Victorian medical textbooks, scientific and sociological treatises, specialist and popular periodical literature, Creating character shows how sensation authors situated themselves at the intersections of established and developing, conservative and radical, learned and sensationalist thought about how identity could be made and modified.
This book charts the vast cultural impact of Charlotte Bronte since the appearance of her first published work, Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell. It highlights the richness and diversity of the author's legacy, her afterlife and the continuation of her plots and characters in new forms. The most well known and well regarded of the three sisters during the Victorian period, Charlotte Bronte bequeathed a legacy which is more extensive and more complex than the legacies of Emily Bronte and Anne Bronte. The book shows how Bronte's cultural afterlife has also been marked by a broad geographical range in her consideration of Bronte-related literary tourism in Brussels. It is framed by the accounts of two writers, Elizabeth Gaskell and Virginia Woolf, both of whom travelled to Yorkshire to find evidence of Charlotte Bronte's life and to assess her legacy as an author. The book focuses upon Bronte's topical fascination with labour migration for single, middle-class women in the light of the friendship and correspondence with Mary Taylor. Recent works of fiction have connected the Brontes with the supernatural. The book explores Bronte biodrama as a critically reflexive art: a notable example of popular culture in dialogue with scholarship, heritage and tourism. The Professor and Jane Eyre house the ghost of an original verse composition, whose inclusion allows both novels to participate together in a conversation about the novel's capacity to embody and sustain a lyric afterlife. A survey of the critical fortunes of Villette is also included.
This volume is the first to bring together research on the life and work of the author, activist, and traveller Margaret Harkness, who wrote under the pseudonym ‘John Law’. The collection contextualises Harkness’s political project of observing and recording the lives and priorities of the working classes and urban poor alongside the broader efforts of philanthropists, political campaigners, journalists, and novelists who sought to bring the plight of marginalised communities to light at the end of the nineteenth century. It argues for a recognition of Harkness’s importance in providing testimony to the social and political crises that led to the emergence of British socialism and labour politics during this period. This collection includes considerations of Harkness’s work in London’s East End at the end of the nineteenth century, but moves into the twentieth century and beyond Britain’s borders to examine the significance of her global travel for the purpose of investigating international political trends. This collection gives substance to women’s social engagement and political involvement in a period prior to their formal enfranchisement, and offers insight into the ways this effected shifts in literary style and subject. In offering a detailed picture of Harkness’s own life and illuminating the lives and work of her contemporaries, this volume enriches critical understanding of the complex and dynamic world of the long nineteenth century.