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John McAleer

their respective vocabularies of engagement with non-European spaces. The historiographies of British imperialism and British overseas missionary activity, for example, have frequently followed parallel paths. Nineteenth-century missionary organisations employed the terminology of benevolence, progress and improvement that also appeared regularly in official discourse. Nevertheless, this should not

in Representing Africa
The 1940s to the 1960s
A. James Hammerton

the timeless reasoning that it would be ‘better for the children’. But we will see in this chapter ways in which the deeply traditional thinking of postwar migrants also left room for a more modern outlook, in which an openness to ‘adventure’ paved the way for new patterns of migrant behaviour in later years. The diversity of migration experience was further widened by the midcentury shadow of British imperialism, and ways in which the middle and upper classes imported old habits of easy mobility to new migration opportunities. Mobile journeys to affluence and self

in Migrants of the British diaspora since the 1960S
Irish Travellers and the Questionnaire
Mícheál Ó hAodha

authentication rooted in a pre-colonial, prelapsarian past that was equally essentialist. I argue here that this ‘new’ Irish essentialism which accompanied the discourse of the emergent nation-state employed an ideological framework of ‘control’ or ‘representation’ that was quite similar to that which had accompanied British imperialism. This new essentialism was reductive by nature and consequently it obscured the existence of heterogeneity in Irish culture including subaltern groups such as Irish Travellers. As a marginalised and stigmatised group within Irish society

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
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The British Empire and the stage, 1790–1930

Imperialist discourse interacted with regional and class discourses. Imperialism's incorporation of Welsh, Scots and Irish identities, was both necessary to its own success and one of its most powerful functions in terms of the control of British society. Most cultures have a place for the concept of heroism, and for the heroic figure in narrative fiction; stage heroes are part of the drama's definition of self, the exploration and understanding of personal identity. Theatrical and quasi-theatrical presentations, whether in music hall, clubroom, Shakespeare Memorial Theatre or the streets and ceremonial spaces of the capital, contributed to that much-discussed national mood. This book examines the theatre as the locus for nineteenth century discourses of power and the use of stereotype in productions of the Shakespearean history canon. It discusses the development of the working class and naval hero myth of Jack Tar, the portrayal of Ireland and the Irish, and the portrayal of British India on the spectacular exhibition stage. The racial implications of the ubiquitous black-face minstrelsy are focused upon. The ideology cluster which made up the imperial mindset had the capacity to re-arrange and re-interpret history and to influence the portrayal of the tragic or comic potential of personal dilemmas. Though the British may have prided themselves on having preceded America in the abolition of slavery and thus outpacing Brother Jonathan in humanitarian philanthropy, abnegation of hierarchisation and the acceptance of equality of status between black and white ethnic groups was not part of that achievement.

Matt Treacy

subjection of the country to ‘British imperialism’. They hoped that Ireland would be united and independent by the 1970s, exercising economic as well as political sovereignty. The key to that would be to unite different sectional groups and they would not stand candidates for elections but would support candidates who showed themselves to be in favour of the objectives of the Society. Any person who proved to be active in support of those objectives could apply for membership, which was open to persons active in the language, trade union, co-operative and republican

in The IRA 1956–69
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Democratic conflict and the public university
Ruth Sheldon

liberal-​democratic nation-​state in relation to the ‘War on Terror’ and explore how this narrative is rooted in liberal, secular and nationalist imaginaries. I explore how these contemporary framings have emerged in relation to evolving inter and intracommunal relations within 14 Tragic encounters and ordinary ethics the British civil sphere and are shaped by less-​acknowledged intertwined histories and geographies of the Holocaust, British imperialism, migrations and racisms. Turning to consider an alternative focus on the involvement of diasporic and left-​ wing

in Tragic encounters and ordinary ethics
Michael Robinson

and control in Ireland. 44 The prejudice was politically motivated, legitimising a ‘pro-Union psychiatry’ which helped to support British imperialism in Ireland. 45 One critic argued that the Irish were unsuitable to have their own government owing to their ‘fierce passions’ of which one unenviable trait was ‘the unreasonableness of children.’ In the aftermath of the United Irish rebellion in 1798, the Morning Chronicle wrote

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39

Popular culture is invariably a vehicle for the dominant ideas of its age. Never was this truer than in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when it reflected the nationalist and imperialist ideologies current throughout Europe. It both reflects popular attitudes, ideas and preconceptions and it generates support for selected views and opinions. This book examines the various media through which nationalist ideas were conveyed in late-Victorian and Edwardian times: in the theatre, "ethnic" shows, juvenile literature, education and the iconography of popular art. It seeks to examine in detail the articulation and diffusion of imperialism in the field of juvenile literature by stressing its pervasiveness across boundaries of class, nation and gender. It analyses the production, distribution and marketing of imperially-charged juvenile fiction, stressing the significance of the Victorians' discovery of adolescence, technological advance and educational reforms as the context of the great expansion of such literature. An overview of the phenomenon of Robinson Crusoe follows, tracing the process of its transformation into a classic text of imperialism and imperial masculinity for boys. The imperial commitment took to the air in the form of the heroic airmen of inter-war fiction. The book highlights that athleticism, imperialism and militarism become enmeshed at the public schools. It also explores the promotion of imperialism and imperialist role models in fiction for girls, particularly Girl Guide stories.

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Imperialism in cartoons, caricature, and satirical art

Comic empires is a unique collection of new research exploring the relationship between imperialism and cartoons, caricature, and satirical art. Edited by leading scholars across both fields, the volume provides new perspectives on well-known events, and also illuminates little-known players in the ‘great game’ of empire. It contains contributions from noted as well as emerging experts. Keren Zdafee and Stefanie Wichhart both examine Egypt (in the turbulent 1930s and during the Suez Crisis, respectively); David Olds and Robert Phiddian explore the decolonisation of cartooning in Australia from the 1960s. Fiona Halloran, the foremost expert on Thomas Nast (1840–1902), examines his engagement with US westward expansion. The overseas imperialism of the United States is analysed by Albert D. Pionke and Frederick Whiting, as well as Stephen Tuffnell. Shaoqian Zhang takes a close look at Chinese and Japanese propagandising during the conflict of 1937–1945; and David Lockwood interrogates the attitudes of David Low (1891–1963) towards British India. Some of the finest comic art of the period is deployed as evidence, and examined seriously – in its own right – for the first time. Readers will find cartoons on subjects as diverse as the Pacific, Cuba, and Cyprus, from Punch, Judge, and Puck. Egyptian, German, French, and Australian comic art also enriches this innovative collection. Accessible to students of history at all levels, Comic empires is a major addition to the world-leading ‘Studies in imperialism’ series, while standing alone as an innovative and significant contribution to the ever-growing field of comics studies.

Social rank, imperial identity, and South Asians in Britain 1858–1914

This book focuses on the role of class in the encounter between South Asians and British institutions in the United Kingdom at the height of British imperialism. The leaders of Britain's cricketing institutions recognised the validity of ranks in an Indian social hierarchy which they attempted to translate into British equivalents. Achievement of Kumar Shri Ranjitsinjhi, one of the greatest cricketers of all time was truly an imperial one, combining the cultures and societies of India and Britain to propel him to a prominence that he would not otherwise have attained. The most important government institution to interact with Indians in Britain was the India Office. The National Indian Association was the most popular forum for interaction among Indians in Britain and Britons interested in India. The London City Mission and the Strangers' Home for Asiatics were the prominent inner-city missions to reach out to Indians in London. The book explores the extent to which British institutions treated Indians as British subjects, sharing a common legal and imperial identity with the inhabitants of the British Isles. It identifies patterns of compassion among Britain's elite when interacting with needy Indians in the United Kingdom, and establishes the central role of education in the civilising mission, particularly through scholarships to study in Britain. The book focuses on the ambiguous responses of British institutions to Indian students in the United Kingdom, ranging from accommodation of Indian culture to acquiescence in British bigotry.