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with Christ. 1 Caroline Walker Bynum, Wonderful Blood (2007) The wounded body is a leitmotif of the Gothic novel and central icon of the Roman Catholic Church, which has perpetuated images of crucifixion, martyred saints, bleeding statues and mystic stigmatics. Sacred art depicts an iconography of suffering

in Dangerous bodies

’s recognition of these English martyrs: ‘I thank God with you to have lived to see this in diebus nostris … It is like the resurrection of the Witnesses whose bodies have lain so long in Babylon … I have long invoked St Thomas More in secret, and now write him so for the first time.’2 The Times journalist would presumably have been even more disappointed later that year, when a Catholic church dedicated to Our Lady of the Assumption and the English Martyrs was founded in Cambridge.3 The beatification of the English Martyrs has received little scholarly attention.4 Yet the

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain
Christianity, religion and the League

Glasgow during Norwood’s visit of February 1927, with Father Mullins of the Roman Catholic Church appearing on the platform alongside the Episcopalian Bishop of Glasgow, the Moderator of the Church of Scotland, a Jewish Rabbi plus representatives of the United Free Church, the Scottish Baptist Union and the Salvation Army.88 Ballot organisers in Liverpool, meanwhile, received valuable assistance from resident Roman Catholic priests when distributing forms in the city’s slums.89 Yet these were undoubtedly isolated events. LNU branches were more commonly met with a wall

in The British people and the League of Nations

of voluntarism and activist groups would be played out prior to independence. While nationalist groups consistently argued that child and family welfare would be improved under Irish rule, the development of activist groups such as the Women’s National Health Association (WNHA) attracted the attention of the Catholic Church which remained uncomfortable with any measures vaguely resembling socialism.3 With regard to institutions catering for children, by 1900 there were approximately 104 industrial schools, reformatories and voluntary orphanages operating throughout

in The cruelty man
Knowledge institutions and the rebalancing of power, 1937– 73

From British rule the independent Irish state inherited an effectively denominational system of university education and a complementary set of science and arts institutions. Under independent rule denominational influence increased and resource starvation prevailed until the end of the 1950s. Then, as the formation of human capital, education began to be treated as an input into economic growth and American initiatives stimulated new research activity. These changes played a vital role in the rebalancing of power between the Catholic Church and the state. Social science, where the Catholic Church had been a monopoly provider, supplies a dramatic case study of the interlinking of this power shift with the process of knowledge generation.

-century philanthropic tradition, the Irish State, guided by the Catholic Church, continued its policies of institutionalisation of children, stigmatisation of single mothers, and charity as opposed to welfare. As addressed in Chapter 1, many of the issues regarding child welfare, voluntarism and State interference in the family had been established before independence, but these intensified as the Catholic Church became an influential force in Irish social policy. In examining the NSPCC, religious orders and the State, the effects of draconian policies on families can be observed

in The cruelty man
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lodge troops, but their exemption was renewed in March 1671.131 And, although the Catholic Church owned some 5 per cent of the land in Savoy and 15 to 20 per cent in Lorraine, the French generally refrained from tapping this wealth.132 The church’s fiscal privileges were maintained in Savoy and Nice right from the beginning of both occupations of each territory, and plans by the commissaire ordonnateur of Nice to force the clergy there to contribute to the fiscal burden on the county in 1706 were quashed by the king.133 Clerics continued to enjoy exemption from the

in Absolute monarchy on the frontiers
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The city and its people in the mid-sixteenth century

. Relations between city, province and crown, and between individuals, were understood in terms of law and contract; there were mutual obligations between different authorities and social groups. There was a strong moral and religious dimension to royal, civic and even household authority, mediated through the theology and culture of the Catholic Church. If the early modern city was to remain peaceful, its residents had to share a basic consensus of values on at least the most fundamental questions of social organisation and religious belief. Such consensus was precisely

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98
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Post-war modernity and religious vocations

women combined being wives and mothers with waged employment. In the years before Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique (1963), the future looked brighter for women who married. 18 The post-war Catholic ‘fortress church’ was changing too. Fuelled (again) by immigration, the Catholic Church appeared ascendant as mass attendance rose, requiring the building of new schools and churches. This was particularly striking alongside a public discourse of secularisation, with Protestants battling declining church turnout. 19 Catholic self-confidence, fuelled by its growing

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age

and the Catholic Hebrides’, Irish Ecclesiastical Record, 42 (1933), 345–64; C. Giblin, ‘The Irish Franciscan mission to Scotland in the seventeenth century’, Franciscan College Annual (Multyfarnham, 1952), 7–24; C. Giblin, ‘The Franciscan mission to Scotland, 1619–1647’, Proceedings of the Irish Catholic Historical Committee 1957 (Dublin, 1957), pp. 15–24; and Giblin (ed.), Mission, pp. vii–xvi; J.L. Campbell, The Catholic Church in the Hebrides, 1560–1760 (Glasgow, 1983); and W. McLeod, Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland, c.1200-c

in The Scots in early Stuart Ireland