The legacy of history

This chapter traces the history of radical left party (RLP) policies and orientation towards European integration, taking further issue with the usefulness of the concept of ‘Euroscepticism’ as a way of encapsulating the rich variety of views and strategies that emerge from our survey. We consider how a wide range of factors has influenced RLPs’ attitudes towards European integration. We aim to show how parties that saw the nation-state as an embodiment of revolutionary and socially egalitarian values (as in the French Jacobin tradition) are likely to differ markedly from parties whose experience of nationalism is bitter and whose historical patrimony makes any recourse to ‘defence of the nation-state’ problematic at best – such as the German, Italian and Spanish parties. We analyse the legacy of RLPs’ co-operation inside the European Parliament from their first appearance there in the 1960s until the post-1989 break-up of the Italian Communist Party, the launch of the Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) in the European Parliament in 1994 and, eventually, the birth of the EL in 2004.

in The European Left Party
Monarchy and the consequences of republican India

In April 1949 the Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ meeting in London issued a joint declaration stating that it accepted India’s decision to become a republic and remain part of the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth had hitherto been a grouping of realms and colonies that owed allegiance to a common monarch. Though attention has been given to how the inclusion of India affected the Commonwealth, far less research has been given to how this transformative action influenced the monarchy. The chapter investigates the ideas that were debated at the time. Did India’s republican status within the Commonwealth spell the demise of the Crown as the embodiment of British prestige, leaving it as an embarrassing vestige of vanishing glory? Or did the 1949 London Declaration, rather, usher in a new era for the Monarch to revive the relevance of the Crown in the post-war age as Head of the Commonwealth, a position shorn of imperial pretensions and open to new international opportunities? This chapter explores whether the London Declaration, which marked the beginning of the “New Commonwealth”, also extended to making a “New Monarchy”. India had caused Victoria to be raised to the exalted status of Empress in 1876, but what would that country, less than a century later, make of her successors?

in Crowns and colonies
Open Access (free)
Quentin Crisp as Orlando’s Elizabeth I

In 1992, Quentin Crisp appeared on cinema screens as Elizabeth I in Sally Potter's Orlando; the following year, he provided the 'Alternative Queen's Message' on Channel 4 television on Christmas Day, going head-to-head with Elizabeth II. This chapter will revisit this cultural moment, examining the significance of Crisp's perfonnances of 'queenliness'. The late 1980s/early 1990s heralded a shift away from the lesbian and gay politics of the 1970s and '80s towards a more confrontational queer activism. Orlando can be seen as an example of early queer cinema, given its play with gender and sexuality, and Potter's casting of Tilda Swinton (a regular collaborator of Derek Jannan). Other queer films of the time also unsettle and complicate particular moments in history, and equally employ a pointedly artificial mise-en-scene (Jannan's Edward II, Julien's Looking for Langston, Kalin's Swoon). How does Crisp's appearance - as an embodiment of the flaming, camp homosexual - complicate the film's politics of sexuality? Does it articulate a political ' clearing of the ground', with an older gay culture (Elizabeth) giving way to a fresh queer one (Orlando)? This chapter will consider the film as a provocative transition between particular forms of cultural production - bound up with changing attitudes towards the monarchy itself.

in The British monarchy on screen
Open Access (free)
Amateur film, civic culture and the rehearsal of monarchy

Dating from as early as 1906, a large number of amateur films commemorate royal visits to Scotland's town halls and schools. They capture- in lise Hayden's terms - the 'minor events' of British royalty where the monarchs' physical presence and symbolic embodiment are balanced on a 'knife's edge' as both their 'ordinariness' and uniqueness must be maintained simultaneously. This tension explains why the choreographing of these events is often (wearily) similar and the films boring. Nonetheless, these amateur films sometimes capture moments of contingency (the look at the camera, the unseemly exuberance of children) that expose the limits of this balancing act and the 'work' that underpins the perfonnance of monarchy. Conversely, in many cities across Scotland these royal encounters have been re-imagined in pageants and gala days also commemorated in amateur films. In these films, children take on royal functions, becoming fleshy 'effigies' of the monarch in ritualistic performances that dramatize the ambiguous origins of royal pageantry, whether the monarchs involved are 'real' or 'fake'.

in The British monarchy on screen
Open Access (free)

This chapter examines the durational live art performance bit-u-men-at-work. Created and performed as part of Performing Mobilities 2017, a city-wide festival in Melbourne, the work was the embodiment of a performance-as-research process with an agenda informed by post-human, new materialist and ecofeminist notions of material ecologies. Though the performance set out to investigate, question and possibly reconcile the abhorrent physical and cultural qualities of bitumen as a fossil fuel material, the industries invested in it and the social labour practices surrounding it, gestures of intimacy and care associated with repair emerged as significant transferable values towards developing an ethical material practice. The performance, as an artistic work, also attempted to extend theories, notions and practices of care to an earthly, exploited and assumed inert material, expanding socially driven conversations around care to ecological caring as a world-making activity. Affective labours of material care were enacted through strategies of becoming-other, intimate proximity and engrossment, seeking to cultivate ‘response-ability’ to the material other and beginning to generate a material-led aesthetics of care.

in Performing care
Writing on the body

registers of the term sic and its use throughout the book, while releasing/​turning towards other dance and political theorists who have considered the relationship between dance and writing. Two books in particular have discussed inscription within the discipline of political theory and embodiment theory. Carrie Noland’s Agency and Embodiment:  Performing Gestures/​Producing Culture discusses the communicative power of gesture and reinstates embodied discourses in a performative setting. She argues that gesture is a phenomenologically independent world constructed

in Dance and politics
Abstract only

, and was able to survive, albeit outside of this framework, when paramilitary groups, most notably the UVF, were formed shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, and continued to survive throughout the Troubles. Even before the first embodiment of the Irish militia during the Crimean War, political considerations were in the forefront of the minds of policymakers, which partly explains why it was not embodied at the same time as its English counterpart. These political considerations continued to shape any decision made with regard to the auxiliaries in

in The Irish amateur military tradition in the British Army, 1854–1992

impossible to teach the men to march steadily up and down the hill. This was not remedied until August 1855 when the regiment was moved to Dundalk Cavalry Barracks, where ‘the parade ground was large enough MAD0316 - BUTLER 9780719099380 PRINT.indd 141 21/09/2016 10:24 142 The Irish amateur military tradition and level’.2 Similar scenes were noted in other regiments, for instance when it was recorded that, although the Longford Militia had mustered 386 privates in the first three months of its embodiment, it had been furnished with only seventy stands of arms, ‘an

in The Irish amateur military tradition in the British Army, 1854–1992
Abstract only
Edward Shils – the ‘outsider’

12 Concluding comments: Edward Shils – the ‘outsider’ Christopher Adair-Toteff Stephen Turner introduced this volume by pointing out the many contradictions in Edward Shils’ thinking. The focus of these concluding comments is to add to Turner’s account by addressing Shils’ influence and by evaluating his successes and failures. Not only did Shils embody many contradictions, but he was also the embodiment of an ‘outsider’. Born to Russian immigrant parents and brought up in Pennsylvania in the United States, he was drawn to an eclectic and wide range of authors

in The calling of social thought
Abstract only

’s ambivalent position both at the core of the inside yet on the outside: an insider-out. The orphan is perceived of as a racialised other who is, through emigration, involved in a programme of racial cleansing as Victorian Britain attempted to displace the racialised indigenous other in the colonies. Orphanhood, and the unknown genealogy it implies, is also the embodiment of Victorian culture’s fears of illegitimacy

in Orphan texts