heart of the
church’s mission. Their identity, however, continued to be informed by ideas
about femininity and morality. The nineteenth century saw the churches converge in the belief that the reform of society would ultimately be accomplished
through the pious influence of women and that this group required ‘proper’
instruction. In Catholic circles the reform of women fell largely to women religious, those engaged in social welfare work with women and girls.
Across Europe and NorthAmerica, women religious successfully navigated
the patriarchal terrain to achieve a
by indigenous peoples. We are not concerned, then, with whether these
imperial crises are objectively similar – indeed, there were
differences between each of these territories – but with the
significance of their identification with each other on the grounds of a
common ethnic and political sentiment.
For centuries before 1886, in Ireland, NorthAmerica, the
Caribbean and India, imperial authorities
research. To the generation of neurologists
who had made their names in the interwar period and were reaching
retirement age, younger generations appeared somewhat adrift and
perhaps even resentful. To most neurologists in the 1950s, the field
appeared to be in decline, a professional discourse that was perhaps
exaggerated by similar complaints in NorthAmerica.15 The reality
was more complicated. The new generation’s experiences, however,
warrant consideration, for they illustrate the tensions that existed in a
specialty that had at last found its own way.
of funding to gain a better understanding of the changing character of British
healthcare during this period. The question of whether a hospital could remain
a charity whilst taking payments from patients, the recipients of that charity,
is hard to separate from a wider historiographical debate in the social
histories of medicine in Britain, Europe and NorthAmerica, on whether the
hospital had by now lost its social function. 52
only for the construction of jail houses and courts’.19
In NorthAmerica, where timber was often plentiful, the wooden stockade fort
with ditches was generally the norm. Such stockades were to be found everywhere,
defending traders against indigenous First Nation or Native American peoples,
and in the far north, the Inuit. Such forts continued to provide their military
function right down to the later nineteenth century. As in the Caribbean, others
were designed for protection against rival imperial powers. The fortifications at
Militarisation, mobility and the
, ‘Introduction’, in John Styles and Amanda Vickery
(eds), Gender, taste and material culture in Britain and NorthAmerica, 1700–1830
(New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006), p. 16.
34 Ibid., p. 14.
35 Lawrence Klein, ‘Politeness for plebes: some social identities in early eighteenth-
century England’, in Ann Bermingham and John Brewer (eds), The consumption
of culture: word, image, and object in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
(London: Routledge, 1995), p. 373.
36 Ibid., p. 364.
37 Bushman, The refinement of America, p. xvi.
38 Ann Bermingham
quo between the early
1960s and the end of the century constituted an undeniable part of
the changes to postwar France as a whole. But the modernisation of
the world of sport and stadia was not a uniquely French phenomenon.
Indeed, developments in France, from changes to spectator culture, sport
and the function of stadia as instruments of urban planning, increasingly
aligned themselves with developments in NorthAmerica and Europe in
the years between the end of the Second World War and the completion of the Stade de France. The spectator experience within the
, the IODE expressed concern for children, a concern which
had everything to do with politics and was not confined by public and
private borders, but one which justified the IODE women’s place as
mothers in politics.
When women’s historians of the postwar era in NorthAmerica have questioned the image of women’s place in the home,
right-wing women have thus far been excluded from consideration. Many of
investigation law . This body of law, shaped and qualified by commissions of lunacy (or lunacy trials), constituted a far older and long-standing understanding of, and response to, madness. It was a socio-legal framework for understanding and responding to mental incapacity that would eventually be situated in parallel with laws that signalled a growing emphasis on institutional confinement and inspection in England and, later, in parts of NorthAmerica.
Furthermore, the last section of the Acts, which read, ‘or to restrain or prevent any Friend or
. Although largely absent from
the admittedly limited literature on eighteenth-
century interior decoration in Ireland, Robbins’s professional milieu in fact placed him among
the progenitors of the neoclassical movement in Dublin. Wellford, on the
other hand, has recently been the subject of a monograph which unambiguously underlines his role as a pivotal figure for the development of
the Federal style across British NorthAmerica. Just as design histories
have problematized traditional ‘trickle down’ theories of reception and
emulation, so the introduction of new and