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Coping with change

heart of the church’s mission. Their identity, however, continued to be informed by ideas about femininity and morality. The nineteenth century saw the churches converge in the belief that the reform of society would ultimately be accomplished through the pious influence of women and that this group required ‘proper’ instruction. In Catholic circles the reform of women fell largely to women religious, those engaged in social welfare work with women and girls. Across Europe and North America, women religious successfully navigated the patriarchal terrain to achieve a

in Creating a Scottish Church

by indigenous peoples. We are not concerned, then, with whether these imperial crises are objectively similar – indeed, there were differences between each of these territories – but with the significance of their identification with each other on the grounds of a common ethnic and political sentiment. For centuries before 1886, in Ireland, North America, the Caribbean and India, imperial authorities

in ‘An Irish Empire’?

research. To the generation of neurologists who had made their names in the interwar period and were reaching retirement age, younger generations appeared somewhat adrift and perhaps even resentful. To most neurologists in the 1950s, the field appeared to be in decline, a professional discourse that was perhaps exaggerated by similar complaints in North America.15 The reality was more complicated. The new generation’s experiences, however, warrant consideration, for they illustrate the tensions that existed in a specialty that had at last found its own way. The

in The neurologists

of funding to gain a better understanding of the changing character of British healthcare during this period. The question of whether a hospital could remain a charity whilst taking payments from patients, the recipients of that charity, is hard to separate from a wider historiographical debate in the social histories of medicine in Britain, Europe and North America, on whether the hospital had by now lost its social function. 52

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48

only for the construction of jail houses and courts’.19 In North America, where timber was often plentiful, the wooden stockade fort with ditches was generally the norm. Such stockades were to be found everywhere, defending traders against indigenous First Nation or Native American peoples, and in the far north, the Inuit. Such forts continued to provide their military function right down to the later nineteenth century. As in the Caribbean, others were designed for protection against rival imperial powers. The fortifications at 56 Militarisation, mobility and the

in The British Empire through buildings
A genteel life in trade

, ‘Introduction’, in John Styles and Amanda Vickery (eds), Gender, taste and material culture in Britain and North America, 1700–​1830 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006), p. 16. 34 Ibid., p. 14. 35 Lawrence Klein, ‘Politeness for plebes: some social identities in early eighteenth-​ century England’, in Ann Bermingham and John Brewer (eds), The consumption of culture:  word, image, and object in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (London: Routledge, 1995), p. 373. 36 Ibid., p. 364. 37 Bushman, The refinement of America, p. xvi. 38 Ann Bermingham

in Building reputations

quo between the early 1960s and the end of the century constituted an undeniable part of the changes to postwar France as a whole. But the modernisation of the world of sport and stadia was not a uniquely French phenomenon. Indeed, developments in France, from changes to spectator culture, sport and the function of stadia as instruments of urban planning, increasingly aligned themselves with developments in North America and Europe in the years between the end of the Second World War and the completion of the Stade de France. The spectator experience within the

in The stadium century
Defending Cold War Canada

, the IODE expressed concern for children, a concern which had everything to do with politics and was not confined by public and private borders, but one which justified the IODE women’s place as mothers in politics. When women’s historians of the postwar era in North America have questioned the image of women’s place in the home, right-wing women have thus far been excluded from consideration. Many of

in Female imperialism and national identity
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Lunacy investigation law, 1320–1890

investigation law . This body of law, shaped and qualified by commissions of lunacy (or lunacy trials), constituted a far older and long-standing understanding of, and response to, madness. It was a socio-legal framework for understanding and responding to mental incapacity that would eventually be situated in parallel with laws that signalled a growing emphasis on institutional confinement and inspection in England and, later, in parts of North America. Furthermore, the last section of the Acts, which read, ‘or to restrain or prevent any Friend or

in Madness on trial
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Style, taste and the business of decoration

. Although largely absent from the admittedly limited literature on eighteenth-​ century interior decoration in Ireland, Robbins’s professional milieu in fact placed him among the progenitors of the neoclassical movement in Dublin. Wellford, on the other hand, has recently been the subject of a monograph which unambiguously underlines his role as a pivotal figure for the development of the Federal style across British North America. Just as design histories have problematized traditional ‘trickle down’ theories of reception and emulation, so the introduction of new and

in Building reputations