scheme to segregate the indigenous people of Algeria from French and
Christian influence. A firm advocate of the restoration of
Christianity in North Africa, Lavigerie believed in the
complementarity of Church proselytism and French colonial expansion.
By advocating an openly assimilationist policy that included the
conversion of the Muslim populations to Christianity
labours of the Jewish Defence League. At first, the rabbi–leader and his supporters mounted demonstrations against the Soviet government and began to wage war against Christian proselytism and the ‘Black Hebrews’ of Dimona. However, in August 1972, Kahane redirected the goals of his organisation to concentrate on the group which would eventually become the principal object of his ‘attentions’ – the Arabs. That same year, he launched an operation entitled ‘The Arabs Don’t Belong Here, They Must Go’. The goal of this operation was to encourage Arab emigration in exchange
fittest: a West African sportsman in the age of the new
imperialism’, in J. A. Mangan, ed., The Cultural Bond , London, 1992 , pp.
47–83; see also A. Odendaal, ‘South Africa’s black
Victorians: sport and society in South Africa in the nineteenth
century’, in J. A. Mangan, ed., Pleasure, Profit,
Proselytism , London, 1988, pp. 193
into French homes. 22
‘Popular imperialism’ was not as marginal as has sometimes
been argued. It was related to the ever-evolving sense of French
identity and was, to a certain extent, linked to the profound changes in
the make-up of the French population which the country witnessed in the
twentieth century. 23
Religious feelings and proselytism also played a
(Cambridge, Polity Press, 1987).
117 D. Russell, Football and the English. A Social History of Association Football in
England 1863–1995 (Preston, Carnegie Publishing, 1997), p. 70.
118 R. J. Holt, ‘Football and the urban way of life in nineteenth-century Britain’,
in J. A. Mangan (ed.) Pleasure, Proﬁt, Proselytism. British Culture and Sport at Home
and Abroad, 1700–1914 (London, Frank Cass, 1988), p. 68.
119 Savage and Miles, The Remaking of the British Working Class, pp. 62–8.
120 Midland Daily Telegraph, 1 September 1906.
121 Coventry Times, 2 January 1889.
both ‘avoid any charge of proselytism’ and
also encourage faith.108
The alternative ‘ethical education’ syllabus called ‘Learn Together’ was first
introduced in Educate Together schools (which now account for about 2 per
cent of all primary schools) in 2004. This syllabus was Educate Together’s
answer to the government’s demand for a form of religious instruction within
school hours as a legal obligation (in application of the 1965 Rules for National
Schools). The parents and teachers who founded the first such schools in the
1970s had at first tried to set up a
Connexion. In 1838 the
Conference endorsed temperance societies, but warned against too active
proselytism as tending to be divisive, and the 1854 Conference forbade
circuits from making teetotalism a requirement for local preachers. By
1900 attitudes had changed somewhat, when the Conference passed a
resolution reaffirming ‘our emphatic opinion that so great and terrible are
the evils of the liquor traffic that the Church of Christ should be free from
all complicity with the same,’ and banned anyone with a liquor license
from holding office in the Connexion.41
yoke of Sacerdotalism, this Grand Lodge pledges itself to recommend to
the Provincial Masters, District Masters and Masters of Lodges that Female
Lodges be started and extended throughout the length and breadth of
The following two years’ meetings of the English Grand Lodge saw
Aldwell make similar appeals championing the prominent role that
women could take in fighting the Orange Order’s religious battles. At
the 1883 meeting held in Manchester, the Rev. Aldwell emphasised the
perception that women were peculiarly the targets of Catholic proselytism
an end to such plans. With much more of a political than a religious agenda, the Ottomans extended and consolidated their power in the eastern and southern Mediterranean throughout much of the sixteenth century, but after 1580 they directed their energies elsewhere. There obviously would have been no captives or renegades without a religiously divided Mediterranean, but the interests and motives of those involved most often had little to do with proselytism. The goal was not to conquer or subjugate the other side but to take the fullest possible advantage of it