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Settler colonies, ethno-religious violence and historical documentation: comparative reflections on Southeast Asia and Ireland

accessible’ and open to discussion, as Aidan Clarke shows in his chapter in this volume. The combination of the depositions’ unique content, including eye-witness • afterword • 261 accounts that Nicholas Canny calls ‘so clinical in detail as to be entirely plausible’, and the 350-year interval before their complete and accurate publication, raises three important issues for historical analysis of secret or long-suppressed archival collections.35 These issues are in some ways complementary, sometimes contradictory, yet all three are possibly universal in the study of

in Ireland, 1641
Imperial and colonial histories

academic and popular histories of chocolate, I examine archival evidence and secondary literature to assess the nature of British firms’ involvement in the purchasing of cocoa. I explore the daily operations of the Rowntree-Fry-Cadbury buying agency in Nigeria and offer some insight into the experiences of staff employed by the British chocolate manufacturers. These histories, rarely told, must inform

in Chocolate, women and empire
Global days of action and photographs of resistance

, photographs of these actions were and are available to contemporary viewers via the RTS website. The website was constructed in 1997 and was extensively used by the group to organise actions, mobilise, build coalitions, communicate and campaign. This early use of the new technology’s possibilities by the RTS activists enabled the creation of an online photographic archive consisting of a large amount of visual documentation, posters and leaflets as well as accounts of the group and its actions.13 The online archive was ‘owned’ by the activists themselves, resisting the

in Photography and social movements

delegation of Mantuan dignitaries (a letter from Gianfrancesco Anguissola to the Duke of Mantua dated 7 March 1567: ASMn:AG 40 c.22). Interestingly, among the other companies that were mentioned as travelling with this large delegation, archival evidence also reflects that during the visit there were feats of danger presented by the Turks (‘pericolo rappresentato dai Turchi’). Here

in Transnational connections in early modern theatre
Travellers in Britain in the twentieth century

This book is a history of Britain's travelling communities in the twentieth century, drawing together detailed archival research at local and national levels to explore the impact of state and legislative developments on Travellers, as well as their experience of missions, education, war and welfare. It also covers legal developments affecting Travellers, whose history, it argues, must not be dealt with in isolation but as part of a wider history of British minorities. The book will be of interest to scholars and students concerned with minority groups, the welfare state and the expansion of government.

Open Access (free)
Bloomsbury attitudes to the Great War

The Great War still haunts us. This book draws together examples of the ‘aesthetic pacifism’ practised during the Great War by such celebrated individuals as Virginia Woolf, Siegfried Sassoon and Bertrand Russell. It also tells the stories of those less well known who shared the attitudes of the Bloomsbury Group when it came to facing the first ‘total war’. The five-year research for this study gathered evidence from all the major archives in Great Britain and abroad in order to paint a complete picture of this unique form of anti-war expression. The narrative begins with the Great War's effect on philosopher-pacifist Bertrand Russell and Cambridge University.

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Taranchis during the uprising of 1916 in Semirech’e and the “Atu” massacre of 1918

inhabitants of Uyghur villages in Semirech’e was a kind of “deferred” response by Russian settlers to the participation of Uyghurs-​Taranchis in the 1916 revolt. In other words, the 1918 massacre of the Taranchis was in retaliation for their opposition to the Tsar’s conscription decree. The research has been based on analysis of Russian archival documents and Uyghur folk songs (qoshaq). These sources complement one another. While the Russian archival documents describe the Uyghurs’ reaction to the conscription decree and the nature of their insubordination, the songs

in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916

relationship with history and politics, but also points to photography’s ability to raise public awareness about the struggle, which can potentially be transformed to solidarity and support. The numerous photographs on the EZLN website can then be seen within this context: they are weapons for the visibility and sustainability of their struggle. Although the indigenous people may not be in control of the photographic means of production, this online photographic archive can be seen as representative of the way they visualised their movement and of the image promoted to the

in Photography and social movements
Embers of Empire

This book is about the end of the British Empire in the Middle East. It offers new insights into how the relationship between Britain and the Gulf rulers that was nurtured at the height of the British Empire affected the structure of international society as it remains in place today. Over the last four decades, the Persian Gulf region has gone through oil shocks, wars and political changes; however, the basic entities of the southern Gulf states have remained largely in place. How did this resilient system come about for such seemingly contested societies? The eventual emergence of the smaller but prosperous members such as Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates was not at all evident until 1971. Until then, nine separate states had stood in parallel to each other under British influence. At various points, plans were discussed to amalgamate the nine into one, two, three or even four separate entities. What, then, drove the formation of the three new states we see today? Drawing on extensive multi-archival research in the British, American and Gulf archives, this book illuminates a series of negotiations between British diplomats and the Gulf rulers that inadvertently led the three states to take their current shape. The story addresses the crucial issue of self-determination versus ‘better together’, a dilemma pertinent not only to students and scholars of the British Empire or the Middle East but also to those interested in the transformation of the modern world more broadly.

The P&O Company and the Politics of Empire from its origins to 1867

This book is a study on the history of the P&O shipping company, paying due attention to the context of nineteenth-century imperial politics that so significantly shaped the company's development. Based chiefly on unpublished material in the P&O archives and in the National Archives and on contemporary official publications, it covers the crucial period from the company's origins to 1867. After presenting new findings about the company's origins in the Irish transport industry, the book charts the extension of the founders' interests from the Iberian Peninsula to the Mediterranean, India, China and Australia. In so doing it deals also with the development of the necessary financial infrastructure for P&O's operations, with the founders' attitudes to technical advances, with the shareholding base, with the company's involvement in the opium trade, and with its acquisition of mail, Admiralty and other government contracts. It was the P&O's status as a government contractor that, above all else, implicated its fortunes in the wider politics of empire, and the book culminates in an episode which illustrates this clearly: the company's rescue from the edge of a financial precipice by the award of a new government mail contract prompted, among other things, by the Abyssinian expedition of 1867.