In November 1880 the Reverend Charles Thompson arrived at Kherwara, Rajasthan, India, to establish the first Anglican mission to the Bhils, a primitive tribe, by going amongst them as a healer. This book sets out the history of the interaction between the missionaries and the Bhils, a history of missionary medicine, and how certain Bhils forged their own relationship with modernity. During the 1870s, the Church Missionary Society declared its intention to open more missions 'among the non-Aryan hill-people', and the Bishop of Lahore wanted more missions to work amongst the 'aboriginal' Bhils. A great famine that began in 1899 brought radical changes in the mission to the Bhils. After the famine, many of the Bhagats, a local sect, became convinced that the sinless deity was the God of Christians, and they decided to convert en masse to Christianity. The missionaries working amongst the Bhils believed that Satan was in their midst, who was constantly enticing their hard-won converts to relinquish their new faith and revert to their 'heathen' ways. It was argued that 'heathen' beliefs and culture could be attacked only if female missionaries were required to work with native women. Mission work had always been hampered by a lack of funds, and at one time, the hospital at Lusadiya had to dissuade many would-be inpatients from coming for treatment due to lack of beds. The book also deals with the work of the mission in the post-colonial India, which laid more stress to healing than evangelism.
This book talks about the story of Thomas Becket's turbulent life, violent death and extraordinary posthumous acclaim in the words of his contemporaries. The story and the issues often require explanation and interpretation, and it is sometimes necessary to fill in the gaps left by the biographers. It is hoped that by reading about him in the words of his biographers, others will be encouraged to investigate further the unresolved features of his life. Both medieval and modern commentators have tended to take more interest in Thomas of Canterbury than in Thomas of London. The earliest recorded disputes in which Thomas was involved as archbishop relate to his attempts to retrieve Canterbury properties. Thomas's establishment as archbishop led to a crisis of unprecedented severity between the crown and the Church in England. His rift with his former friend the king, and the progress of the dispute which led to public confrontation and prolonged exile, was keenly followed all over the Christian world. Thomas's flight and prolonged exile moved the dispute onto a new plane. His heroic attempt to shield the archbishop from the knights' blows earned him a place in the saint's legend, and in many visual representations of the martyrdom.
This book reviews the burial history of central North Yorkshire. In exploring the social history of burial in rural areas, the book aims to encompass some of the principles underpinning 'l'histoire des mentalites'. The book considers the issue of churchyard closure. Churchyard closure generally signalled that burial space was made available elsewhere, and in most cases before 1894 this meant that the churchyard itself had been extended. The book reviews the incidence of churchyard extension, which was commonplace during the nineteenth century. The Burial Acts introduced legislation that permitted vestries to establish burial boards, which could raise loans repayable through the rates to fund the laying out of new cemeteries. In central North Riding, a total of eighteen burial boards were in operation before 1894, and the book reviews in detail the operation of the ten largest boards in that group. The Burial Acts maintained and even strengthened the hold of the Church of England on burial space, by substantially increasing the amount of consecrated land under its control. The book also addresses the contention that the new legislative context for burial in the twentieth century might then introduce the opportunity for a substantial centralisation of burial provision. Finally, the book reviews the pattern of burial provision in 2007 compared with 1850, and concludes that there is evidence of both continuity and change.
This book examines trials, civil and criminal, ecclesiastical and secular, in England and Europe between the thirteenth and the seventeenth centuries. The cases examined range from a fourteenth century cause-célèbre, the attempted trial of Pope Boniface VIII for heresy, to investigations of obscure people for sexual and religious offences in the city states of Geneva and Venice. These are examples of the operation in the past of different legal, judicial systems, applied by differently constituted courts, royal and manorial, secular and ecclesiastical, which adopted different procedures, adversarial and inquisitorial. Ranging from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century, the book considers criminal trials and civil litigation conducted in royal, manorial and Church courts in late medieval and early modern England. These trials concentrate on the structure, jurisdiction, functions, and procedures of the courts and on the roles of the judges of fact and of law, both amateur and professional, who composed them. The trials of Giorgio Moreto and of Laura Querini were influenced by the politics of the Venetian State and its ongoing and highly charged relationship with the power of the Church. Discussing the legal history of continental Europe, the book then shifts the emphasis from the judges and jurors to the prisoners arraigned before the courts, to the victims of prosecution or to the highly questionable images of them created by their enemies.
Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.
Most people would agree that the hospital functions as one of the 'first
duties of an organized society' as a public service for those members of
the community who are in need. In the thirteenth century, hospitals represented
a nexus of exchange between church officials, the community, the needy, and the
pious or ambitious individual. This book presents a survey that offers an
overview of the role of the hospital in affairs of the urban community,
suggesting how changes within that community were reflected in the activities of
the hospital. It locates the rise of the hospital movement in northern Italy
within the context of the changing religious, social, and political environment
of the city-states. The book introduces the hospital's central function in
the distribution and administration of charity. It illustrates how the hospital
and other charitable organizations played a role in the appropriation of power
and influence by urban citizens. A comprehensive investigation of twelfth and
thirteenth century hospitals' foundational charters follows. The book then
delves into a detailed description of the physical plant of the hospital, the
daily life of individuals, and rules and statutes followed by its members. It
considers the social composition of donors, workers, and recipients of hospital
services. Jurisdictional disputes among the city leaders, the community,
individual religious orders, ecclesiastical authorities, and larger political
forces. Finally, the book explores the process of consolidation and
bureaucratization of hospitals in the fifteenth century and the emergence of
state control over social services.
When General Charles Gordon lived at Gravesend in the 1860s, he turned himself into a child rescuer. This book contributes to understandings of both contemporary child welfare practices and the complex dynamics of empire. It analyses the construction and transmission of nineteenth-century British child rescue ideology. The book aims to explain the mentality which allowed the child removal policy to flourish. The disseminated publications by four influential English child rescue organisations: Dr. Barnardo's (DBH), the National Children's Homes (NCH), the Church of England Waifs and Strays Society (WSS) and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC), are discussed. The gospel of child rescue was a discursive creation, the impact of which would be felt for generations to come. The body of the child was placed within a familiar environment, rendered threatening by the new social, religious and moral meanings ascribed to it. Ontario's 1888 Children's Protection Act required local authorities to assume maintenance costs of wards and facilitated the use of foster care. Changing trends in publishing have created an opportunity for the survivors of out-of-home care to tell their stories. The book shows how the vulnerable body of the child at risk came to be reconstituted as central to the survival of nation, race and empire. The shocking testimony that official enquiries into the treatment of children in out-of-home 'care' held in Britain, Ireland, Australia and Canada imply that there was no guarantee that the rescued child would be protected from further harm.
In 1856 the Brighton clergyman J. S.
M. Anderson published the third and final volume of his History of
the Church of England in the Colonies and Dependencies of the
British Empire . Anderson’s three volumes – the first
appeared in 1845 – represented the first attempt to write a
narrative of the Church of England’s colonial career from the
fifteenth century to the
The Church of England, migration and the British world
In 1859 an obscure Salford clergyman
named Thomas Atkins published his reminiscences of ten years’
journeying as a missionary and chaplain in Australia, India and South
Africa. Atkins’ rambling book – he called it The
Wanderings of a Clerical Ulysses – gave a revealing
account of a former Congregationalist’s peripatetic career through
the Church of England’s distant
Hopes of building a self-sufficient
colonial Church were far from being realised at mid-century. The penury
of colonial congregations and continuing suspicion of the voluntary
system prompted colonial churchmen to look to home for everything from
clergy to church bells. Of course, those who wanted colonial transcripts
of England’s ‘immemorial customs and ordered social