Abstract only

112-year period, and of the official mentalities that beckoned them there. Seeking to understand the vista in these terms requires a longitudinal study, of the kind offered by this book, of the changing interactional features between the state and different female networks. It is apparent that the mentalities of the colonial state concerning women and girls in India changed over time, and were more

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
Abstract only
Family, school and antenatal education

3 Educating mothers: family, school and antenatal education D uring the second half of the twentieth century the question of how girls should be prepared for their future role as mothers provoked considerable debate. There was often disagreement about where the education of mothers should take place; and indeed if such education was necessary at all. Significant changes also took place over the period, as the assumption that all women would want to be mothers was challenged. Moreover, despite the rhetoric during these years about the need to educate girls to be

in Modern motherhood
Career Girls

‘All these memories’: Career Girls 8 Still keeping us on our toes, Leigh followed the ensemble playing and emotional sweep of Secrets and Lies with a carefully crafted miniature. Career Girls focuses on just two young women, Hannah (Katrin Cartlidge) and Annie (Lynda Steadman), who used to be flatmates when they were students in the mid-80s and, having not seen each other for six years, spend a weekend together at Hannah’s London home. It turns out to be a weekend full of coincidences and unexpected blasts from the past. Leigh makes no attempt to obscure these

in Mike Leigh
Women and leisure time in A City Girl (1887) and In Darkest London (1891)

In Harkness’s London 4 •• ‘The problem of leisure/what to do for pleasure’: women and leisure time in A City Girl (1887) and In Darkest London (1891) Eliza Cubitt ‘The power of enjoyment’: working women and leisure The need expressed by social reformers for ‘good moral public amusements’ for the British people in the late nineteenth century was countered by a fear that ‘progressive degradation of popular amusements’ was inevitable because working people did not know how to enjoy themselves in a wholesome manner (Jevons, 1878: 500). While lamenting the loss

in Margaret Harkness
Race and pedagogy, 1883–1903

projecting Western socialisation – feminine agents within a broader colonial mission. However, if the British were to stay in India, it would not be easy to build a new kind of society partly based on European, feminine, middle-class sensibilities. The missionary compound was not turning out as the state had imagined in terms of providing a refuge for the enculturation of educated women and girls. In the latter

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932

adult, remarked to her brother that she would have ‘been happy enough to wear Breeches instead of Petticoats and been your Brother instead of your Sister’.22 Once early childhood ended, boys, no matter what their social standing, had more opportunities of formal training and education than their sisters. Fanny Burney read the Old Testament to her seven-year-old son, but was unsure of its appropriateness for girls, because translators were incapable of ‘guarding it from terms and expressions impossible – at least utterly improper to explain’.23 Girls had more training

in Siblinghood and social relations in Georgian England

the new group; however, he objected to the Scout movement’s emphasis on patriotism and was forced out of the American organisation in 1915. 24 Whether Baden-Powell’s main concern prior to 1920 was training citizens or future soldiers has sparked much scholarly debate. 25 Tensions within the early Scout movement, as exemplified by Seton and others, suggest that Baden-Powell initially sought to train both. Girls took an early interest in the scouting movement with a large group attending the first big Scout rally at Crystal Palace in London

in Na Fianna Éireann and the Irish Revolution, 1909–23

nature of contact between the metropole and the subcontinent regarding females generally, a new scene emerged in India that was conducive to a new spirit of Western uniformity regarding the education of women and girls. It was now much easier for European women to travel to the raj – to follow a husband, to seek one out, or to become a part of mission or professional communities. In addition, the opening

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932

for its excellence except ‘as a pleasant excursion. . . to the faraway world of her childhood with Jane Austen as her travelling companion’ (Lansbury: 182). Although Lerner notices that the title ‘announce[s] a theme’ (16), he does not discuss it, while Collins bluntly calls the title ‘an irrelevance’ (Collins: 60). Only Coral Lansbury and Patricia Spacks see that the structure of families and the socialisation of girls is the central, and important, subjectmatter of Wives and Daughters. In 1862 Turgenev published Fathers and Sons, which became known to English

in Elizabeth Gaskell

late nineteenth century, Catholicism was the focus of girls’ educational lives. Religious education began early, in the home, but as girls progressed through the state educational system, it reinforced the messages of idealised Catholic womanhood, with the goal of preparing girls for future motherhood. By the first few decades of the twentieth century, religion had become even more enmeshed in education; by then, most Irish girls had access to at least a secondary-level education as well as a 16 irish women quickly expanding body of religious print literature

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950