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Tactics and networks
Zoë Laidlaw

depended on cheap convict labour in the era before mass emigration. Non-convict New South Wales society could be crudely divided (and it was by its inhabitants) into free emigrants, or ‘Exclusives’, and emancipated convicts, their families and supporters (collectively ‘Emancipists’). Free emigrants, attracted by the generous land grants of an earlier

in Colonial connections, 1815–45
Manchester’s mixed-genre anthologies and short-story collections
Lynne Pearce

Famine, though it had been a hundred years before, had become part of consciousness, seared into the very geography, the half-obliterated paths; those defeated, hopeless people setting out on tortuous journeys, ending in death or exile, the people with their backs to the land . . . It was time to leave, a mass emigration that continued for the next hundred years, which I was forced to join at one of its peaks. (Seán Body, ‘Moving Manchester’ Writers’ Gallery) There is certainly plenty of evidence in the poetry produced by the Manchester Irish Writers’ Group of a

in Postcolonial Manchester
Working-class English associational culture
Tanja Bueltmann and Donald M. MacRaild

the Rose and the Daughters and Maids of the Revolution, to be wooed by the reactionary Anglo-Saxon periodical. Anti-Catholicism and anti-Irishness were unifying cultural discourses across the British World. The mass emigrations of the 1840s, during the Great Irish Famine, amplified all negative relations between the English and Irish. In 1846, the Liverpool Times divided the Irish into ‘the emigrants of hope’, who went to the United States or Canada, and ‘the emigrants of despair’, who languished in Britain.125 In the industrial and commercial cities of Liverpool

in The English diaspora in North America
The English since 1800
Donald M. MacRaild

of English settlement.149 Hence, Hammerton and Thomson’s path-breaking study of post-war mass emigration from Britain to Australia stresses their invisibility, often using the terms ‘English’ and ‘British’ interchangeably to label the people born in England.150 The same is true of Barber and Watson’s study of the English in post-war Canada.151 Among the few works which specifically examine the Australasian English, Jupp’s general account offers an interesting but superficial exploration, and in any case does not investigate English ethnicity.152 In New Zealand

in British and Irish diasporas
Marie Mulvey-Roberts

staged during the 1880s, when anti-Semitism was rife in Britain, exacerbated by the mass emigration of Eastern Jews into the East End of London. The actor’s biographer, John Davis, was at pains to separate character from actor by pointing out that Irving ‘has nothing Jewish in him by nature – a little narrowness about the eyes perhaps, but that is due to short sight’. He goes on to quote from a ‘very

in Dangerous bodies
Piero Garofalo, Elizabeth Leake and Dana Renga

the many ‘escapes and landings’ from and to Lipari, Stromboli,Vulcano, Salina, Filicudi, Alicudi, and Panarea in twelve films and documentaries by some of Italy’s most canonical filmmakers, foremost of which are the director’s father and uncle. The sequence on the experience of internal exile lasts approximately ten minutes, and follows the introductory segment focusing on the large mountain of pumice mined by locals, several of whom in turn developed, the narrator ‘Figliodoro’ (Golden Sun) tells us, a deadly ‘lung illness’ that led to a mass emigration. Golden Sun

in Internal exile in Fascist Italy
An introduction to the book
Colin Coulter

of the Central Bank, Patrick Honohan, stole a march on the politicians when he disclosed on an early morning national radio programme that Ireland would in fact be negotiating financial assistance from what would come to be known as ‘the troika’ of institutions, namely the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Commission (EC) and the European Central Bank (ECB). There had of course been many developments over the previous couple of years that had indexed the scale of the crisis in Ireland. The number unemployed had grown to record levels and mass

in Ireland under austerity
Paul Kelemen

countries.65 The entry of each refugee was conditional on a British citizen or refugee organisation guaranteeing that the individual would be provided with financial support and, therefore, not be a burden on the state. To provide refugees entering the UK with financial support, the Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF) became the principal co-ordinating body. In March 1936, it was re-formed as the Council for German Jewry, to expand and coordinate more effectively the work of assisting the mass emigration of German Jews. The organising committee from which the

in The British left and Zionism
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Europe and its Muslim minorities
Amikam Nachmani

economic outlook acts as a pump to mass emigration from all Arab nations, particularly to Europe. The Islamic agenda and theology are said to lubricate this human movement. Outsiders describe Muslim population growth as a conspiracy, a cunning means to achieve political targets. Islam’s time, they say, is short, now or never, to fulfil its goal of world supremacy by exploiting the poor Arab and Muslim masses. The West in general and Europe in particular are seen as ageing and weak, economically sick and socially and politically bankrupted, hence the importance of timing

in Haunted presents
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The Holocaust as a yardstick
Amikam Nachmani

. The mass emigration of Jewish European scientists from the early 1900s onward, mainly to England and North America, indeed depleted the continent’s scientific community. The 2004 Israeli Nobel Prize winner in chemistry Aaron Ciechanover (shared with the Israeli Avram Hershko and the American Irwin Rose) explained the ‘Jewish anomaly’ and the Nobel Prize. About a quarter of all Nobel laureates are Jews. This is rather astonishing, as Jews number less than one quarter of 1 per cent of the world’s population, meaning that the Jewish population pool that produced these

in Haunted presents