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‘are squishily affirmative’.11 Such readings obscure the assertions of self which the novel develops that define a distinct progression towards a more hopeful, positive future. What critics such as Hussain rightfully recognise, however, is an unresolved tension in Ali’s narrative. The majority of the novel echoes the conventional – and somewhat clichéd – model of alienated migrant subject most associated with postcolonial fiction. Dealing with the relatively late mass migration of Bangladeshis to London, which only reached its peak after the 1962 Immigration Act

in British Asian fiction
From refugees to foreign paupers

London and St Petersburg by the Foreign Office in persuading the Russian authorities to take back these particular ‘Volga Germans’. Those on the Minho were doubly lucky that they were accompanied home by George Lungley of the Southampton Board of Guardians. Lungley, not unusually for those associated with the port and its increasing role in transmigrancy, had strong connections to the commercial world of mass migration: he had run a company for close to thirty years in Southampton for those emigrating to Australia.47 It was his insider’s knowledge that allowed the

in The battle of Britishness
The Kinder

, symbolic now of racist restrictionism in the age of mass migration. It is, however, hard to conceive that such connections were intended in Meisler’s naming of his tribute to Britain or to tell from his memorial that the country never intended to provide permanent refuge to these children. Memory of the Kindertransport has been instrumentalised to show how generosity is integral to British character. But as Louise London has passionately argued in response to claims that Britain ‘has a proud tradition of taking in refugees over many centuries’, that even ‘if it isn

in The battle of Britishness

particular between 1963 and 1970 there was a large influx of Irish Travellers to Britain.17 For these migrants, at least before the Troubles in Northern Ireland, being in England offered advantages beyond greater economic possibilities, as they might ‘pass’ in English society as working-class Irish, whereas their idiosyncratic speech would be immediately identifiable to an Irish listener as that of ‘an itinerant’.18 There were, however, difficulties thrown up by this mass migration: ‘they had to enter into economic competition with often resentful local Travellers and

in A minority and the state

. It was Italo Balbo, Mussolini’s closest and most popular collaborator (and therefore rival), who conceived the idea of a programme of mass migration to Libya to be viewed under the spotlight of national and international attention. Balbo may have been sent to Libya as governor-general to distance him from Roman centres of power and intrigue,10 but he made the most of his appointment to consolidate his image in Italy as well as to enhance the prestige of the regime. He saw Libya as presenting an excellent opportunity to demonstrate to Italians and to the world what

in The cult of the Duce
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Notes on Ackroyd & Harvey ecocriticism and praxis

newspapers among others, 22 September 2015. Nature matters 107 11  Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January 2007: ‘Global warming poses a dire threat to human civilization that is second only to nuclear weapons. Through flooding and desertification, climate change threatens the habitats and agricultural resources that societies depend upon for survival. As such, climate change is also likely to contribute to mass migrations and even to wars over arable land, water, and other natural resources.’ http:// thebulletin

in Extending ecocriticism
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Being Irish in nineteenth-century Scotland and Canada

with Scotland and the second will examine central Canada. Before moving on to these discussions, however, it is important to highlight some overarching points. The mass migration of Irish prompted indigenous Catholics in Scotland and French Catholics in Quebec to fear the effect that this movement would have on their religious culture and traditions. In Scotland, anti-Irish sentiment from within Scottish Catholic ranks was common and was connected to broader concerns about Scotland’s identity within Britain and Catholicism’s place in Scottish society. Scotland was a

in Women and Irish diaspora identities

differing views on the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy. These differences are products of centuries. They will not soon disappear. They are far more fundamental than differences among political ideologies and political regimes.49 One of the problems with Huntingtonian isolationism and cultural relativism is that it disregards the mass migration in evidence today, and the fact that, in diasporic conditions, people are often obliged to adopt shifting and multiple positions of identification. According to

in Migration into art

in the social context: this was an era of growing industrialisation and mass migration from the countryside by impoverished and landless rural labourers following the Enclosure Acts. Crime rates increased and familiar social structures appeared to break down. The idea of respectability acted as a bulwark against the horrors of social and sexual degeneration with the home becoming ‘a place of constant struggle to maintain privacy, security and respectability in a dangerous world’ (Hepworth, 1999: 19), and this struggle was reflected in the architecture of Gothic

in Domestic fortress
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Ethnic associationalism and an English diaspora

in distress. By the mid-nineteenth century, when mass migration propelled large numbers of English cross the Atlantic for a new life ‘out west’, English ethnic societies had also taken hold in Canada. These associations developed everywhere, with their spread intrinsically connected to the general settlement patterns of the English. Such was the proliferation and interest that, in 1881, one of the older organizations in the United States, the Sons of St George in Philadelphia, 1 2   The English diaspora in North America had so many hundreds of members that its

in The English diaspora in North America