of the Crown Film Unit noted,
‘Humphrey used whatever he wanted’.71 The point is further exempli
fied by Pat Jackson who, in his memoir of the era, recounts how he was
disturbed to see shots from his film Ferry Pilot (1941) included without
his permission in Words for Battle.72 Jennings’ image acquisition may
have been more rigorous than that of other directors but, as Malcolm
Smith notes, ‘[t]here is nothing unusual about this [practice] in wartime
documentary, or in the British documentary tradition, which time and
again used stock-shot material. What is unusual
, Seattle and London, University of Washington Press, pp. 34–58.
Anon. (1983), ‘Catherine et Marie-Hélène Breillat sont passées du duel au duo’,
Argand, Catherine (2002), ‘Le Livre de leur enfance’, Lire, July/August.
Beauvoir, Simone de (1958), Mémoires d’une jeune fille rangée, Paris, Gallimard.
Beauvoir, Simone de (1959), Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter, trans. James
Kirkup, Cleveland and New York, World Publishing.
Berlant, Lauren (2002), ‘Two Girls, Fat and Thin’, in Stephen M. Barber and
David L. Clark (eds), Regarding Sedgwick: Essays on Queer Culture
National cinema, indigenous creativity and the international market
, something that
Puttnam was very concerned about.
The final aspect of the film that I would like to comment on
here in relation to commercial pressures is one that remained largely
unchanged throughout its making: that is the ending. In his
memoir The Undeclared War David Puttnam refers to his own
experiences in the making of Local Hero to illustrate the balance
he sought throughout his career between commercial and artistic
demands. In so doing he mentions a particular incident that is
worth quoting at some length:
‘Raking over’ Local Hero again
successful and celebrated associations
between a film director and composer ended in 1966 with Torn Curtain, a fact that
has been lamented ever since by devotees of both Alfred Hitchcock and Bernard
Herrmann, all the more since the film itself proved unsuccessful at the box office.
But the handwriting was already on the wall well before then, and the seeds of
Hitchcock’s discontent really originated not so much out of conflict with Herrmann,
but with the studio system and its established procedures for film scoring.
In his memoir Music for the Movies, Louis Levy recorded
Callan (ITV, 1967–72) as an existential thriller for television
others.’23 Yet whilst the hardboiled
novel typically relates events in the past tense, providing the
memoir of closed case, the voice-over narration in Callan is in the
present tense, providing the viewer with access to Callan’s streamof-consciousness in moments of dramatic tension, conveying his
‘A balance of terror’ 35
doubts and insecurities and creating a much more uncertain and
unresolved tone. This is therefore a hardboiled style reworked
according to the characteristics of immediacy ingrained within
videotaped television drama.
‘Callan lives!’: Breakout
John Izod, Karl Magee, Kathryn Hannan and Isabelle Gourdin-Sangouard
Film-Maker (London: Cassell, 1998) 119.
See Cunningham, ‘Lindsay Anderson’s O
Lucky Man !’, 261.
Gavin Lambert, Mainly About Lindsay Anderson: A
Memoir (London: Faber and Faber, 2000) 168.
Diary, 16 June 1972 (LA 6
Boom! (1968), Secret Ceremony (1968) and Figures in a Landscape (1970)
life and death prove to be
immanent in each other. Chris’s role, as The Angel of Death, will be
to teach Sissy the true meaning of this impasse, of death as a form of
active silence far beyond her ability to put it into words, whether as past
memory or memoir. She will learn, as Williams so eloquently puts it,
‘how not to be frightened of not knowing what isn’t meant to be
known, acceptance of not knowing anything but the
L’Identité de la France: Espace et
Histoire , Paris , Flammarion .
G. ( 1976 ),
‘Trois questions sur Six fois
deux : À propos de Sur et sous la
communication ’, Cahiers du
cinéma , 271 , 5–12 .
J. ( 1988 ),
Mémoires: pour Paul de Man , Paris , Galilée .
especially successful in examples
like the 2003 film Touching the Void, and I shall say more about the
implications of this development in the Chapter 8. The use of a
protagonist as verbal caption was particularly striking in Oliver
Hirschbiegel’s 2004 film Downfall (German title: Der Untergang).
About the last days of Adolf Hitler (and featuring a stunning
impersonation of the Nazi dictator by Bruno Ganz), the film was
partly based on a memoir by one of Hitler’s wartime secretaries,
Traudl Junge.4 Junge appears at the beginning and end of the film.
In the opening credit