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Britain and the sea
Jan Rüger

Nicholas Purcell, ‘The Mediterranean and “The New Thalassology” ’, American Historical Review, 111 (2006), 722–40. 19 Bernhard Klein and Gesa Mackenthun (eds), Sea Changes: Historicizing the Ocean (New York: Routledge, 2004); Kären Wigen, ‘Oceans of History’, American Historical Review, 111 (2006), 717–21. 20 See only Philip E. Steinberg, The Social Construction of the Ocean (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001); Kathleen Wilson, The Island Race: Englishness, Empire and Gender in the Eighteenth Century (London: Routledge, 2003); Klein and Mackenthun (eds), Sea

in A new naval history
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Older people in the family
Jane Gray, Ruth Geraghty and David Ralph

changing significance of grandparents in contemporary families. In this chapter we will also explore changes (and variations) in the social construction of grandparenthood. How have our understandings and expectations about older people’s roles in families changed? We will see how power relations across the generations changed as Irish society moved away from an economy based on small-property holding to one centred on wage labour, and again in the context of changing gender roles and the restructuring of the adult life course. During most of the second half of the

in Family rhythms
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Geertje Mak

something deeply rooted in the self. The sociologist Stefan Hirschauer has noticed a similar, but slightly different transformation which pertains to transexuals and not primarily to hermaphrodites. In his book Die soziale Konstruktion der Transsexualität (‘The Social Construction of Transsexuality’) he describes how social conflict concerning sex, when a person revokes her or his sex of birth, becomes a medical problem concerning the relationship between physical sex and psychological sex.1 This transformation takes place in the contemporary Western world when someone in

in Doubting sex
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Mervyn Busteed

distinctive religious practice, language and political outlook and merged with the host population, a trend which alarmed the Catholic Church in particular, provoking recurrent anxieties over ‘leakage’. But, as will be shown, significant numbers retained at least some of these features and eventually came to occupy prominent places in the social geography and cultural life of the city. Identity is a malleable social construction, subject to constant renewal and reinvention. During the period under discussion British national identity underwent some significant shifts in

in The Irish in Manchester c. 1750–1921
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Max Silverman

social constructions rather than natural characteristics, but it will also establish a tension between Martinican and metropolitan culture and history which is at the heart of Fanon’s ‘lived experience’. ‘White’ for Fanon is already overlaid by the Martinican experience of the ‘béké’ (the white master of colonial rule). It is his racialising and inferiorising look which will be recalled (if unconsciously) when, in a train, Fanon is cast as the demonic Negro in the eyes of the white boy with his mother. This moment in France is therefore overlaid with (and

in Frantz Fanon’s 'Black Skin, White Masks
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Bryan Fanning

minority, within a history of ideological and material exclusions. In recent decades some breaks with past dominant constructions of Irishness could be noted. Yet, it continues to be defined within a monocultural religious-ethnic construction of nation. A postcolonial conception of national identity formed in opposition to Britishness was reinvigorated by the Northern Ireland conflict even as secularisation and urbanisation unravelled the earlier project of nation-building on which this drew. The last decade has been marked by the social construction of the Irish as a

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
Tom Inglis

, language, history and territory.3 A conception of Irish difference was historically inculcated in the minds, bodies and souls of each successive generation, in a perfect storm of cultural nationalism propagated by priests, nuns, brothers, teachers and writers, reinforced by compliant parents.4 However, it would be wrong to interpret Irishness as simply a social construction; an illusion or myth that, in creating a sense of ‘we’, conceals inequalities in power and acts as a form of symbolic domination. Being Irish has become central to creating and maintaining a sense of

in Are the Irish different?
Don Randall

’s characterising concern with otherness, a concept that certainly resonates with the inaugural articulations of postcolonial theory. Discussion of An Imaginary Life, in Chapter 3, introduces the notion of the othered other, the other deformed and made threatening by fear and disavowal, by refused recognition, and this key conception of the social construction of otherness remains pertinent in subsequent discussion of abjection. Said’s Orientalism, and most particularly in the chapter ‘Orientalizing the Oriental’, argues that imperial discourse works in large part by deformation

in David Malouf
Mícheál Ó hAodha

applied to Irish Travellers in the modern era, and as developed by the Gmelches (1976), O’Connell, (1994a); Hancock and McVeigh (1992) and Okely (1983), has until very recently tended to follow the socio-constructionist approach as originally theorised by anthropologists such as Barth (1969) and as focusing on the social construction of difference. The most recent work in this area (Belton, 2005) has explored Traveller and Gypsy ethnicity as linked with Traveller-settled interaction, socio-economic conditions, legislative developments and the increased visibility of

in ‘Insubordinate Irish’
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Allyn Fives

to develop their agency (Sanders, 1999). What do Foucauldian sociologists think of such programmes? They agree that parents play a crucial role in the development of children’s agency, as, through various processes of social construction, children are empowered. However, for the Foucauldian sociologist, autonomy itself is a social construct, and therefore the ‘autonomous’ individual has been constructed through a process of ‘subjugation’: ‘Individuals are constituted as autonomous individuals only in the sense that they are subjects, i.e. subjected to social power

in Evaluating parental power