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Manchester, for example, currently houses magnificent and representative collections of Indian silks from the mid-nineteenth to early twentieth century. These silks were collected for specific purposes. They reflect the size and diversity of India’s handmade silk industry and are testimony to a wide range of traditional and complex weaving, printing, dyeing and embroidery skills. What then was their

in Silk and empire
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active within the UK. These groups were made up of a mixture of philanthropic, voluntary, feminist, political and religious women’s groups.2 Of the 120, only fifteen were classified as overtly feminist, reflecting the fact that groups openly espousing a feminist agenda were somewhat marginalised at this time.3 Historians of women in the twentieth century have explored the history of a wide variety of women’s organisations active throughout the century.4 These histories have included suffrage and post-suffrage feminist societies, women’s sections of the established

in Housewives and citizens
Prince Alfred’s precedent in overseas British royal tours, c. 1860– 1925

couple, which set a new trend for tours by married royals), nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British royal tours borrowed generously, though not necessarily consciously, from Alfred’s template. 6 The point is not that later royal tourists always recognised Alfred as their model – they often didn’t – but rather that Alfred pioneered, mostly through trial and error, naval tours, itineraries and programmes which suited the needs of the young

in Royals on tour
The National Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child

Voluntary action in the ‘welfare state’ 6 Voluntary action in the ‘welfare state’: the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child Pat Thane Michael Rose made a distinguished contribution to the historiography of the English Poor Law in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Poor Law was the only publicly provided form of ‘welfare’ in Britain between the early sixteenth century and the mid-twentieth century. Later in his career he became interested in the modern history of the voluntary sector, particularly the settlement movement, and

in People, places and identities

the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that time was speeding up. Technological developments – the railway, the telegraph, the motor car, the radio – were both sign and symbol of the increased pace of life. Many people deplored the demise of ‘old leisure’, of more leisurely ways of living. They worried about the stress that it entailed, particularly for those they called ‘brain-workers’. The remedy lay in ‘a gospel of leisure’ to parallel ‘the gospel of work’. Leisure must have a serious purpose, to make people fit for more work. Such thinking was the outcome of the

in Time, work and leisure

9 Beyond the witch trials Counter-witchcraft and popular magic The archaeology of counter-witchcraft and popular magic Brian Hoggard One aspect of the study of witchcraft and magic, which has not yet been absorbed into the main stream of literature on the subject, is the archaeological record of the subject. Objects such as witch-bottles, dried cats, horse skulls, shoes, written charms and numerous other items have been discovered concealed inside houses in significant quantities from the early modern period until well into the twentieth century. The locations

in Beyond the witch trials
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conceptions of work for both men and women in paid employment in the late twentieth century, which privileged endurance, competition and toughness. To find work distressing or difficult to cope with was therefore existentially problematic and for some simply too damaging an admission to make. The idea that stress was something to be ‘despised’ also tied it to notions of shame and a sense that the individual was not demonstrating the stoicism that had been so closely related to notions of Britishness in the past and which continued to be referenced

in Feeling the strain

identity in the second half of the nineteenth and early years of the twentieth centuries. Caledonian Societies emerged throughout southern Africa. The totemic days of the Scottish calendar were widely celebrated. Highland games were instituted as major sporting and cultural events, matching their counterparts in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. 2 These

in The Scots in South Africa
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, as did other primary schools not controlled by the State, but secondary schools evolved only slowly into their present form in the early years of the twentieth century. Vocational schools were not set up until 1930, but technical training was given in many National Schools. Only a tiny minority of the population attended university, as not all of the professions demanded a university degree, and primary teachertraining colleges were set up only in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. In 1911 male and female literacy rates in Ireland were comparatively

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
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gratification, but cricket – at county level and the grassroots – had stood still. Only in 2003 with the introduction of Twenty20 cricket did the authorities make a genuine play for a new kind of audience. The fact that the England cricket team was generally quite poor in the 1970s and 1980s also had a knock-on effect. Cricket-playing youngsters had few role-models to be inspired by. But despite its mounting problems, local cricket has renewed itself in numerous ways in the last decades of the twentieth century. Multiculturalism: the enriching of the local game A group which

in Cricket and community in England