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), p. 138; idem, ‘Protestants and the Irish language: c.1675–1725’ in Journal of Ecclesiastical History, xliv (1993), 265. 2 Witchcraft and Whigs decline until recently.4 For one such historian, Wallace Notestein, Francis Hutchinson was the personification of this educated, rationalist outlook for which witchcraft no longer held any attraction.5 This triumphalist approach, however, lost much of its appeal by the last decade of the twentieth century. It is now generally accepted that the impact of the ‘Scientific Revolution’ had been over-estimated because it

in Witchcraft and Whigs
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challenge some prevailing conventions by analysing religion as an empowering belief system. The ambiguity that existed in the relationship between women and the institutional church is recognised. Women’s involvement within any religious hierarchy is a problematic paradigm in the nineteenth century. Apologetic and promotional church histories are an intrinsic part of the chronicles of ecclesiastical scholarship, particularly in the early part of the twentieth century. Their partisan content and lack of self-criticism have made it difficult to assess critically the

in Contested identities
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In the last quarter of the twentieth century, dozens of books and articles on witches and witchcraft were published,amounting to a sort of second witch craze. These publications addressed the topic in general and in specific times and places, witchcraft, witch-hunting, images of witches, witches in art, literature, popular culture, new religious movements, witches in the past and the present

in Male witches in early modern Europe
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Irish is likely to produce far more serious effects on the population of Scotland than even the invaders of the warlike hordes of Saxons, Danes or Norsemen.’ 4 This way of thinking was carried on in the twentieth century by other influential individuals like Andrew Dewar Gibb, Regius Professor of Law at the University of Glasgow, whose 1930 mission statement, Scotland in Eclipse, described the ‘Irish trek to Scotland [as] a national problem and a national evil of the first importance’.5 As has been pointed out, much of the impetus required to stimulate change in the

in Creating a Scottish Church

centuries before the Second World War, but religion has only recently been treated in such a way. According to a number of scholars of popular religion, the twentieth century saw religious belief pushed out of the public realm, back into the private arenas of the home, the family, the personal. In fact, there has been something of a reversal in the fate of sex and religion when it comes to public disclosure

in The Pope and the pill

It seems this disjuncture was acknowledged at the time by Catholic representatives and provided a salient imperative for the commission’s workings. Female sexuality was measured in a way that was in keeping with the new disciplines that had come to define ‘the sexual’ in the twentieth century, not only adhering to a psychological model of sexual health, but examining sexual behaviour through the

in The Pope and the pill

, either deliberate destruction or continuity of use and reinterpretation has all but obliterated the original appearance. When we are asked to try and visualise the people whom we know by name from Ire­land’s early historic period, it is probably once more some leading representatives of the Christian church that come to mind – only that in this case our image of such figures as Patrick, Columba, Columbanus and John Scotus Eriu­ gena is conditioned not so much by any contemporary evidence, but rather by idealising nineteenth- and twentieth-century depictions

in Irish Catholic identities
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universally regarded as a dull uninteresting event, most often seen as an unsuccessful attempt by Robespierre to impose his dictatorial rule on republican and Revolutionary France. The manner in which historians have looked at this seminal event has changed from the political histories of the nineteenth century, and the socio-economic perspective of the early twentieth century, both of which concentrated on the political importance of the Festival. More recently there has been an increasing acceptance of the idea that the Festival was an equally important key cultural event

in Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being
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’ thenceforth, with members of this organisation described throughout as ‘Volunteers’. The belligerents on the other side are referred to by the generic term of ‘crown forces’, which is 27 See Brian Hanley, ‘Terror in twentiethcentury Ireland’, in David Fitzpatrick (ed.), Terror in Ireland 1916–1923. Trinity History Workshop (Dublin: Lilliput Press, 2012), pp. 10–25, at p. 10. 28 David Fitzpatrick, ‘Introduction’, in David Fitzpatrick (ed.), Terror in Ireland 1916–1923. Trinity History Workshop (Dublin: Lilliput Press, 2012), pp. 1–9, at p. 5. See also Anne Dolan, ‘“The

in Freedom and the Fifth Commandment
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conceptual separation between sex and religion has held significant implications for public discussions about and within the Catholic Church throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The Catholic birth-control debate of the 1960s existed in a climate in which this separation was at its zenith in academic discourses. It informed the Pope’s eventual rejection of the ‘liberal’ case for change, but

in The Pope and the pill