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1 War Introduction This I feel. A curse. Mother said it more than once, ‘You could be killed over there, Oliver,’ as if I were incompetent, not man enough to take care of myself; I hated her motherlove arrogance. Did I listen? Did it make sense? Mothers are cowards. Curses passed down the vaginal passageways deep to man. True as true can be. I told her that I didn’t really want to go back to Yale, I was an adventurer, just like her and went to Vietnam instead. But I wonder what she’ll say when she finds out about this. My limbs stiffening, waiting in this groin

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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Grave breaches

Background to war crimes 1 While the origins of the laws of war stretch back centuries, 2 the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were the first to see multilateral conventions on the law of armed conflict, 3 and the twentieth century was the first to see significant prosecutions for breaches of this law. 4 Following the prosecution of a small number of Germans after the First World War by the Supreme Court of the Reich in Leipzig, 5 the aftermath of the Second World War saw the prosecution by the Allies of

in War crimes and crimes against humanity in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
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Guerrilla governance and everyday life in Free Greece

v 5 v A society at war: guerrilla governance and everyday life in Free Greece Few of the Italian soldiers who set off from the town of Arta on 16 January 1943 could have foreseen that their venture would end with their unit’s annihilation a week later by the guerrillas of Spiros Karabinas, an illiterate charcoal burner and EDES band leader. Desperate to return to Arta, they tried to negotiate a truce with the help of the local teacher. Fearful for his own life, the teacher tried to persuade Karabinas that his demands were excessive and might result in the

in A history of the Greek resistance in the Second World War
Myth, memory and emotional adaption

What role does memory play in migrants’ adaption to the emotional challenges of migration? How are migrant selfhoods remade in relation to changing cultural myths? This book, the first to apply Popular Memory Theory to the Irish diaspora, opens new lines of critical enquiry within scholarship on the Irish in modern Britain. Combining innovative use of migrant life histories with cultural representations of the post-war Irish experience, it interrogates the interaction between lived experience, personal memory and cultural myth to further understanding of the work of memory in the production of migrant subjectivities. Based on richly contextualised case studies addressing experiences of emigration, urban life, work, religion and the Troubles in England, chapters illuminate the complex and contingent relationship between politics, culture and migrant identities, developing a dynamic view of the lived experience of British–Irish relations after 1945. Where memory is often regarded as a mechanism of antagonism within this relationship, Life History shows how migrants’ ‘recompose’ memories of migration as part of ongoing efforts to adapt to the transition between cultures and places. As well as shedding new light on the collective fantasies of post-war migrants and the circumstances which formed them, Life History thus illustrates the cultural and personal dynamics of subjective change over time: migrants located themselves as the subjects of a diverse and historically evolving repertoire of narratives, signalling adaption, difference and integration as co-articulating features of the Irish experience in post-1945 England.

This book provides a critical analysis of the definitions of war crimes and crimes against humanity as construed in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Each crime is discussed from its origins in treaty or customary international law, through developments as a result of the jurisprudence of modern ad hoc or internationalised tribunals, to modifications introduced by the Rome Statute and the Elements of Crimes. The influence of human rights law upon the definition of crimes is discussed, as is the possible impact of State reservations on the underlying treaties that form the basis for the conduct covered by the offences in the Rome Statute. Examples are also given from recent conflicts to aid a ‘real-life’ discussion of the type of conduct over which the International Criminal Court may take jurisdiction.

in the South African War or the making of Union, included useful passages on the attitudes of South African Africans to Britain and the Empire 4 but none focused systematically on this topic. 5 Much more scholarly attention was directed to the attitudes of Africans in South Africa to America and African-Americans than to their attitudes to Britain and the Empire. While

in The South African War reappraised

This chapter seeks to examine the role of the Cape, and the Cape Afrikaners in particular, in the historical trajectory which led South Africa and Britain from the Jameson Raid to the South African War. There was a large measure of political convergence between the Cape Colony and the Cape Afrikaners. Since 1884 the Afrikaner Bond, the party representing

in The South African War reappraised

3 Children born of war during and after the Second World War In 2006, the Allied Museum in Berlin, under the title ‘It Started with a Kiss’, documented a particular feature of the post-war occupation of Germany, that of German–Allied love affairs after 1945.1 The aim of the exhibition and its trilingual (German/English/French) catalogue was to zoom in on a previously largely untold story of the way in which a multitude of liaisons between American, French and British soldiers and local German women developed despite adverse political circumstances in which

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
How the personal got political

This book demonstrates how the personal became political in post-war Britain, and argues that attention to gay activism can help us to rethink fundamentally the nature of post-war politics. While the Left were fighting among themselves and the reformists were struggling with the limits of law reform, gay men started organising for themselves, first individually within existing organisations and later rejecting formal political structures altogether. Gay activists intersected with Trotskyism, Stalinism, the New Left, feminism and youth movements. As the slogan of the Gay Liberation Front proclaimed, ‘Come out, come together and change the world’. Culture, performance and identity took over from economics and class struggle, as gay men worked to change the world through the politics of sexuality. Throughout the post-war years, the new cult of the teenager in the 1950s, CND and the counter-culture of the 1960s, gay liberation, feminism, the Punk movement and the miners' strike of 1984 all helped to build a politics of identity. When AIDS and Thatcherism impacted on gay men's lives in the 1980s, gay politics came into its own. There is an assumption among many of today's politicians that young people are apathetic and disengaged. This book argues that these politicians are looking in the wrong place. People now feel that they can impact the world through the way in which they live, shop, have sex and organise their private lives. The book shows that gay men and their politics have been central to this change in the post-war world.

2471Ch2 6/2/03 12:04 pm Page 39 2 Regular regiments at war The period from the landing of the British Expeditionary Force in France in August 1914 until the end of September 1915 saw a large number of strains put on the discipline and morale of the Irish regiments and the expeditionary force in general. Firstly, there was the transition from a peacetime to a wartime situation, which naturally saw many changes in the British army, not least in its disciplinary code. Offences, such as sleeping on duty and desertion, which would, in peacetime, have led to

in The Irish regiments in the Great War