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Bricolage One of the consequences for Orson Welles of working in Europe was that it took a long time, often years, for him to complete a film once begun, and, because he was subject to constraints imposed by a lack of funding, these productions had a ‘make-do’ quality to them, not exactly improvisation so much as resourcefulness. When costumes did not materialise for a scene in Othello (1952) because they had not been paid for, Welles shot the scene in a Turkish bath where costumes were not necessary. Similarly, studio set-ups were often not available to him

in Film modernism
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, community, heroes, Indians, the cavalry, rural Ireland, the coalfields of Wales) kept intact from the disruptiveness of history (transformation) and reality (a different view) and subjectivity (plurality). The skill of Ford was to transform legend into ‘fact’, to make it seem more nearly true than any reality. He did so by rigorously objectifying the stories he told: the real settings of Luc Godard par Jean-Luc Godard, vol.1, 1950–1984 (Paris: Cahiers du cinéma, 1998), p. 268. 154 Film modernism Monument Valley, a landscape at once true and eternal. Ford followed and

in Film modernism
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reintroduced the war and post-war literature to a fuller historical context. The war did not occasion a break in the development of modernist and avant-garde literature. In Modernism, History and the First World War, Tate compares British, American and European literature and their contexts, while Booth, in Postcards from the Trenches: Negotiating the Space Between Modernism and the First World War specifically examines depictions of the military in civilian texts. This problematically suggests that modernism is separate from war experience, and Sherry points out that

in Writing disenchantment
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(eds.), Tracing Modernity: Manifestations of the Modern in Architecture and the City (London, 2004). Paul Betts, The Authority of Everyday Objects: A Cultural History of West German Industrial Design (Berkeley, CA, 2004). For an introduction to the problems this dominant trend poses, see Jürgen Kocka, ‘Asymmetrical Historical Comparison: The Case of the German Sonderweg’, History and Theory 1 (1999), pp. 40–50. Thomas Rohkrämer, ‘Antimodernism, Reactionary Modernism and National Socialism: Technocratic Tendencies in Germany, 1890–1945’, Contemporary European History

in Germany’s other modernity
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as a fruitful formal and conceptual segue, the feminist content in several of Jeff Wall and Ian Wallace’s works from the mid- to late 1970s is analyzed to show how both artists actively integrated feminist theory and ideas into their visual work, even as they directed critical attention away from it by instead stressing their work’s relationship to the history of European avant-garde critique within modernism. The international and local feminist avant-garde of the 1970s is discussed in Chapter 6, which demonstrates how women’s rejection of canonical art history

in Engendering an avant-garde

imaginary unified Western modernism.41 In effect, when the cultural identity of Western artists is produced within the discursive formation of ‘New Internationalism’ and ‘global art’, there seems to be no space for the recognition of differences internal to the West. The critical discourse on Westernism and multicultural identity politics often ignores several factors. It disregards the fact that the European and American art worlds have ‘internal peripheries’ – such as the former Eastern European countries and Scandinavia – and the fact that there are multiple

in Migration into art
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recomposition of the very origins of the colonial. The liminality of the Anglo-Irish or the Anglo-Indian thus becomes the vantage point from which the spectral can be developed. However, as in the example of Henry James, it is also the case that a hyphenated national identity leads to an estrangement from the past (Europe) and the present (America). Nevertheless the ghost retains its status as a vehicle through

in The ghost story, 1840–1920
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Closing thoughts

also reminded of the place of the scream in Antonin Artaud’s visionary desires, namely – in Susan Sontag’s words – to discover ‘the transcendence of language in the actor’s scream’ (Sontag, 2003 : 89). In 1935, as part of his avowed desire to re-ignite European culture, Artaud himself declared: In Europe no one knows how to scream anymore

in Listen in terror
National post-conceptualism, 1995–98

relationship with institutional Soviet Armenian art on the one hand and with National Modernism, as the official opposition to the former, on the other. I presented the argument that hamasteghtsakan art survived beyond the temporal frame of the 3rd Floor, and can still be traced in the artistic discourses, styles, gestures, and most importantly, in the structural relationship between art and politics on the one hand, and art and everyday life, on the other. For hamasteghtsakan art, I argued, art’s autonomy was supported by the painterly gesture, and it was this gesture that

in The political aesthetics of the Armenian avant-garde
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origini’, ‘The Voyage’ / ‘Il viaggio’, ‘Across Europe’ / ‘Attraverso l’Europa’. ‘Le origini’ takes place in Iran. It begins with Fire, the burning off of natural gas as a by-product of oil drilling. The burning off is at the top of towers in a mountainous terrain. The gas is set alight by gun-flares at night, like a pistol shot followed by a mini explosion at ignition. The film opens with the gas burned off, a coup de théâtre. The burning is part of the extraction process, but the visual effect seems a fantasy like the story of Aladdin and his magic lamp in One Thousand

in Film modernism