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, irrespective of how successful those models had proven to be. Whereas the question of who was a Jew in Austria and which ethnic background could preclude a person from contributing to public life had a longer genealogy in national politics in the empire, the question of who could reside in Austria was mired in the population politics of Fascist and Nazi statisticians in the interwar period. My book shows that Austrofascist population politics – encompassing the state’s racial legislation, Germanizing policies and the creeping legislation that sought to restrict the movements

in Pan-Germanism and the Austrofascist state, 1933–38
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, producing specific ways of talking about race, class, place and schooling. School choice opens up a moment to explore the ways in which people imagine themselves, their children and others in social, relational, space. This is crucial because, as will be discussed in Chapter 1, choice also increases class and ethnic segregation and inequalities. Choices parents make for their children’s education and the ways in which they talk about it come out of understandings of their (and their children’s) relationships to others – in the past, present and future. These are also

in All in the mix

, descent, national or ethnic origin, as provided for in the definition given by ICERD, continues to take place, albeit in different forms from what was perceived initially, and certainly not to the same extent. Racism is no longer institutionalised, nor an official policy in some States, but nevertheless it is still a reality and takes new forms and nuances, concerning in some States important segments of the population. Therefore, the Convention, to which 177 States are today parties, remains a topical instrument of protection of human rights, and responds to social

in Fifty years of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
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given an ultimatum which any sovereign state would find unacceptable, but there was little discussion of the recent background of conflict in Kosovo. Instead, a few articles explained the conflict in terms of ‘ancient ethnic hatreds’, while the majority portrayed it as a case of one-sided, quasi-colonial Serbian aggression, despite the fact that, as indicated in the introduction to this chapter, the KLA was

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
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. However, the illuminating case of the fake Formosan justifies a brief excursion. We have hitherto discussed a number of categories of what Greenblatt considered the ‘threatening Other’, but we have not yet touched upon the theme of ‘racial’ difference.1 The term ‘ethnicity’ is problematic. Its meaning is not clearly defined, but it generally refers to societal groups, whose members share a sense of collective identity, which may be marked by several factors such as a sense of a mutual cultural and traditional background, religious faith, nationality, a language or

in Impostures in early modern England
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exploit the possibilities of recreating Western romance narratives with a British Asian twist. In this, they draw upon an already established Indian romance market. Romances such as the popular US imprint Harlequin and its British equivalent Mills and Boon are imported in large numbers to the developing world, in particular to India, where they are read in English by middle-class Asian women. There has been little research on how the consumption of such Western fictions impacts upon the attitudes of women readers from other ethnic backgrounds in terms of their own

in British Asian fiction
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Immigrants and other outsiders

Ireland. Nor are the kinds of marginalisation experienced by some immigrants – in education, access to public services, employment or political representation – unique within Irish society. Debates about integration often focus on processes of cultural adaptation but it is also the case that integration in practical terms relates to many issues that also affect other potentially marginalised groups in society. In seeking to contextualise the kinds of barrier potentially faced by some immigrants, this book includes (in Chapter 1 ) a focus on Travellers, an Irish ethnic

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
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The conclusions to be drawn

speculate on how people’s backgrounds, especially in Ireland, shaped their sense of self. With identity we have been on firmer ground because revealed behaviour and some surviving testimony have provided evidence to make conclusions on identities and their mutation. The distinction between a family having an Irish identity and an Irish heritage has been stressed. Perhaps the most problematic area has been diasporic or transnational relations. We have frequently identified individuals and families who probably emigrated, but in only a limited number of cases do we know

in Divergent paths
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not think immigrants opened the country up to new cultures, only 12 per cent of Scots agreed.8 Various reasons are used to explain this difference, from the rather positive reading of Scots as ‘an essentially welcoming, tolerant people’,9 to the more negative sense in which prejudice in Scotland is directed not towards ethnic minorities, but rather towards an alternative ‘other’: the English.10 The small number of ethnic minorities in Scotland (2 per cent in 2001),11 and their concentration in its four major cities, is very different to the British situation.12 Yet

in British Asian fiction

society, telling us that, in comparison to other immigrant groups, immigrants from Turkey and their children are, for example, less likely to speak French at home or read French newspapers, and more likely 34 Turkish immigration, art and narratives of home to marry someone of the same ethnic background.4 Internet discussion forums provide nuances to the sociological data. The internet site ‘Thé et feu’ (Kaya 2005) includes a discussion of participants’ willingness to marry outside the Turkish community.5 The consensus was overwhelmingly negative. Most participants in

in Turkish immigration, art and narratives of home in France