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diversity within a nascent, yet fragile, political unity. Joining together diverse entities in a regional union that respects their individual integrity, the constitutional structure of the Union challenges the organic theory of the polity, without relying entirely on the properties of ‘segmented differentiation’. From this stems its greatest merit as a system of mutual governance, but also its strongest concern: to provide equality of status to its members while allowing for a less rigid understanding of sovereign statehood. In fact, the TEU offers an advanced conception

in Theory and reform in the European Union

themselves as meritocratic institutions. In Ireland, access to higher education varies between different social class groups, and this has been explained in terms of meritocratic individualism. Gender differentiated patterns (in which girls outperform boys academically) in state examinations, and in access to, and graduation from, universities, are less often explained in this way. Thus, if an explanation similar to that in the case of class is used (i.e. one involving individual merit), then girls are brighter, more hard working and hence academically more meritorious

in Management and gender in higher education

institutions in which they operate. It is possible for parties to react in entirely different ways to the same environmental changes. They need not all follow strictly functional pressures (Fabre, 2008; Bratberg, 2009; Swenden and Maddens, 2009). Thus, for Deschouwer (1992: 17), ‘ “perception” is the intermediate variable that has to be placed between objective facts and the reactions of the parties’. Similarly, for Wilson (1994: 264), ‘parties are not simply passive recipients of pressures from their socioeconomic, cultural, institutional and competitive environment’. It is

in The territorial Conservative Party
Contingency or transcendence formula of law?

science, politics, morality and law. With this bold idea, Derrida thinks through the consequences of a phenomenon which Luhmann also knew well: despite all division of labour, specialisation and functional differentiation, knowledge is produced everywhere in society, not only in the sciences. In spite of the monopoly of the state, power also emerges outside of institutionalised politics. In spite of the

in Critical theory and legal autopoiesis

the 2004 enlargement Romani Prodi suggested that the EU, founded with the ‘overriding objective’ of eradicating war, had consolidated and extended a ‘Union for peace’ in Europe. 9 The demand for inclusion The credibility of the claims made on behalf of the EU and NATO rest on enlargement and partnership and, in security terms, the functional competence of these two

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
Craft professions, cultural policies, and identity

construction that rests on an idea of group identity. The passage from a model of traditional pottery to that of the recovered pottery resulted in a series of changes: physical ones in terms of the material peculiarities of the pieces and the conditions of their production; functional ones with respect to their utility and manner of existence in society at large; and structural ones in the sense of the ideological modifications (systems of beliefs, values, etc.) imprinted on the sociocultural schemes on which they are projected. The recuperation of Galician pottery 121 In

in Alternative countrysides
Abstract only

institutionalisation of social policy as an integral part of the Swedish model, but on the other hand also provided a latent conditionality to social citizenship and a constant differentiation between groups in and outside of the labour market. This socio-economic theory was drawn up in the 1930s crisis and the following replacement of ideas of nationalisation of production with functional socialism, targeted

in Between growth and security
Patricia Duncker’s The Deadly Space Between and The Civil Partnership Act

deviation, sameness with difference. Similarly, the relation between Toby and his mother derives from a process of gender fusion instead of heteronormative differentiation. Toby and Iso are said to look alike, and through mimetic desire swap conventional gender characteristics: ‘short, straight, blonde hair, like a couple of Nordic heroes, pale freckled skins which burn easily, and the same grey-blue eyes

in Gothic kinship
Analysing the example of data territorialisation

idea that, in a distributed computing network, functionality should be provided by end hosts rather than by the network itself, using … TCP/IP’ (Glen 2014 : 644). While the functions and the governance of the network are performed by the clients, the network provides only the basic and passive foundation for data exchange. The TCP and IP form a simple, robust, and neutral

in Security/ Mobility
Analytical challenges

’s adjustment over the long haul, we will be able to come to a clearer judgement as to whether the way in which EU business is handled derives from a functional logic as to how to deal with membership of the EU, or whether Europeanisation is understood in terms of an internal dynamic of UK government’s organisation. Secondly, we are using Europeanisation initially as a device to organise an empirical review of change in UK central government over time. In essence, we are exploring the proposition that European integration has brought about significant change in the character

in The Europeanisation of Whitehall