the emergence of chavismo . It will be further argued that Chávez’s emergence signals a polarisation around race and class, with Chávez finding support amongst the poorer darker skinned groups while the opposition support rests in the lighter skinned middle and upper social groups. These divisions are further reflected in discourse emerging from both groups. Economic dependency and sociocultural fractures Most Latin American countries are to some extent or other economically dependent on the export of primary

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution

Motorist was more likely aimed at the knowing, experienced driver which, in itself, acknowledged the rise of new drivers drawn from the low to middle section of the middle classes whose milieu was the suburb not the city. The authors explain that ‘This modest but quite attractive little book … is designed to assist, soothe and instruct the motorist-­in-­embryo who longs to join the procession on the Kingston By-­Pass but is uncertain how to set about it’.22 How to Be a Motorist portrays car ownership as the norm in middle-­class suburban life, claiming that ‘cars are

in The experience of suburban modernity
New Jerusalem and beyond

, goods such as cars, refrigerators, washing machines and foreign holidays, previously the preserve of the middle class, became accessible to large numbers of working-class people. The structure of the labour force was 3047 Priestleys England 5/4/07 12:31 Page 177 ‘Now we must live up to ourselves’ 177 also changing, with a shift away from unskilled manual work towards skilled and white-collar occupations, and the education system was expanding to meet this change. To many observers, these developments signalled the decline of class as the key reference-point in

in Priestley’s England
Race, culture and power in the Trinidad ‘Carnival Queen’ beauty competition, 1946–59

which Carnival was again allowed after a four-year wartime ban. From the outset the competition played host to the battle for culture between white-creole elites and middle-class nationalists that steered Trinidad’s passage through the ‘crisis of decolonisation’. As in Jamaica before the war, the beauty competition began in Trinidad in 1946 as a projection of the primacy of white-creole identity, intended to show the mastery of the creole elite, rather than the British, over leadership and power in the emergent Trinidadian nation. However, middle-class nationalists of

in Imagining Caribbean womanhood
Abstract only
The General Strike as social drama

and attacked traditional notions about what constituted a stable society that people were both wary and defensive about any indication of further assault (Weinberger, 1987: 34; Powell, 2002: 124–5). As retired solicitor Bruno Marmorstein – a middle-class, Jewish public school boy of 15 in 1926 – commented, ‘I think the Russian revolution made a lot of difference to the way people looked at things . . . In those days, in 1926 if you were sympathetic to Labour, you were branded as a communist!’ (Marmorstein, Interview, 1985; see Graves and Hodge, 1941: 141). Unstable

in A lark for the sake of their country

pubs’, she wrote in a collection of essays, aptly named Pub: A Celebration. Southern suburban pubs became especially popular with middle-class housewives out on shopping journeys, with a Bloody Mary ordered as a reviver. Sherry and gossip at a pub, so her friends said, became a welcome substitute for coffee and biscuits at a café. The old regime persisted strongest the further London receded from view. Special ladies’ lounges – restricted to women only – still flourished in the North, where she detected ‘a certain smug satisfaction that … women know their place and

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century
Abstract only

03c-Telling Tales-048-079 23/5/12 10:34 Page 48 2 Identity Sink or swim: the dilemma of the failing middle-class professional Introduction This chapter contextualises the work-based identity insecurity experienced by middle-class professionals in the public sector among the general identity-making problems of postmodernity and other cultural determinants of the group. The aim is to illuminate how the call to adapt quickly and constantly to the changing demands of the profit-hungry and cost-effective market impacts on this class with particular intensity. It

in Telling tales
Open Access (free)

wealthy southern city. The options, obligations and experiences of Charley are considered in chapter 3 and then those of George in chapter 4 ; with particular attention to how the hospital payment schemes they would have navigated were introduced in our case study city. Treating the two in separate chapters reflects the distinction drawn between and separation of working-class and middle-class patients as a defining characteristic of the system that emerged over the early

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48

used it in the Great War, the motorcycle became the dominant form of independent powered mobility in the early 1920s. By 1925, it had been overtaken by the car, and became increasingly déclassé in the nuanced world of London’s suburbs. By the end of the interwar period, the motorcycle had become confined to being a form of independent motor transport for those who could not afford a car, but was also an object of enthusiasm for members of suburban motorcycling clubs. In contrast to the car, neither the bicycle nor the motorcycle was seen as an object of middle-­class

in The experience of suburban modernity

.7 ‘By the 1860’s’, wrote historian Brian Harrison, ‘the respectable classes were drinking at home, or not drinking at all’. Novelist Charles Dickens, in an article about pubs in large towns published in 1864, related that working-class men ‘are apt to regard any woman who shows herself in such a place as no better than she should be’. He noted the consequences: ‘The public-house system shuts out the great mass of Gutzke_WomenDrinking.indd 15 22/11/2013 11:02 16 Women drinking out in Britain [respectable] women of the middle and lower classes’.8 Prostitutes

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century