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Eric Richards

extrusive pressure which was reinforced by reciprocal attractions generated abroad (which indeed were directly undermining the local mining economy of Cornwall). The Cornish account – that is, the perfectly rational exchange of migrants from the declining copper industry in England to the other parts of the planet where the same industry was rapidly expanding – was an example of international adjustment by the mechanism of migration, the transfer of Cornish people (and their skills, technology and capital) to new rival copper-producing zones across the world which

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Upland adjustments

West Wales and Swaledale and the sequences of migration

Eric Richards

11 Upland adjustments: west Wales and Swaledale and the sequences of migration Localised variants The underlying conditions which precipitated emigration across the globe stretched to every corner of the British Isles, from Shetland to Cornwall, from Sligo to Boston. There were always significant regional variations in timing, direction, velocity and scale; the Australian experience had mirrored these shifting propensities. Wales, in common with many locations in the British Isles, had a mixed career during the economic and demographic upheavals of the late

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Eric Richards

8 Agrarian turmoil and the activation of mass mobility The road to emigration The search for the deepest roots of modern international migration leads back inexorably to late eighteenth-century Europe and, most generically, to the British Isles. The case depends on the weight and impressions derived from contemporary evidence, but the lines of causation are faint. The beginnings of modern mobility were essentially rural – the origins are found in country cottages and villages, and along the very long and tortuous paths which, for a minority, led to the

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Remote departures

The Scottish Highlands

Eric Richards

the region passed through complicated changes over the next hundred years: the growth of new industries and agrarian transformation, rural turmoil, population growth and accelerated social changes. Some of the earliest and most prolific migrations out of the British Isles derived from the remote peripheries of the country, and the Highlands were surprisingly early in sending migrants to the New World. The region provided a case-study in emigration much prized by Malthus himself and he drew upon its story for a vital part of his diagnoses of the conditions

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Eric Richards

country, this land of liberty and luxuries.1 Kelly was at the centre of a communicating network linking the Isle of Man and Ohio. Social networks were indeed crucial in the maintenance of emigrant flows, monitoring and moderating the element of risk in the decision to emigrate or not. Emigrant letters were part of the mechanisms of migration, and increasingly influential as literacy widened in the following decades. Islands attract social analysts because they seem to offer less complicated conditions, simpler forces at work, and are commonly insulated from wider

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Eric Richards

reasons – especially in the adaptability of labour to the needs of the economy and to the general vitality and interchange of society, to the selection of spouses and the interaction and integration of regions. The movement of people across the country also reflected levels of upheaval and dissatisfaction with the status quo. It may be that the population at large became more moveable before it could rise to new levels of outward migration, and ultimately to spread unrestrainedly across the world. It is clear enough that, despite precursors and precedents, the scale and

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Eric Richards

poverty and turmoil which shook the foundations of English polity especially in the late 1820s. The ‘Captain Swing’ disturbances, entailing the destruction of threshing machines, brought violence and retribution to the countryside of West Sussex. In this fraught context the role of mobility and migration affected all elements in a community which eventually became a prolific supplier of emigrants, not only to North America but also to Australia.1 Turmoil in rural Sussex had been rife at the turn of the century, marked by harvest failures, disorder and protest about food

Open Access (free)

Evoking Baldwin’s Blues

The Experience of Dislocated Listening

Rashida K. Braggs

“It is only in his music [. . .] that the Negro in America has been able to tell his story. It is a story which otherwise has yet to be told and which no American is prepared to hear,” so wrote James Baldwin in “Many Thousands Gone.” Throughout his career, James Baldwin returned to this incomprehension of African-American experience. He continually privileged music in his literature, crafting his own literary blues to address it. Baldwin’s blues resonated even more powerfully and painfully for its emotional and geographical dislocation. In this article, Rashida K. Braggs argues that it was the combination of music, word, and migration that prompted Baldwin’s own deeper understanding. Exploring her term dislocated listening, Braggs investigates how listening to music while willfully dislocated from one’s cultural home prompts a deeper understanding of African-American experience. The distance disconcerts, leaving one more vulnerable, while music impels the reader, audience, and even Baldwin to identify with some harsh realities of African-American experience. Baldwin evokes the experience of dislocated listening in his life and in “Sonny’s Blues.” Braggs also creates an experience of dislocated listening through her video performance of Baldwin’s words, thus attempting to draw the reader as well into a more attuned understanding of African-American experience.

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Changing the mix, 1988–2003

The shift from family to skilled immigration

Anna Boucher

selection’ (CAAIP 1988:  x, xii–xiii). FitzGerald was particularly critical of the 72 Gendering skilled immigration policy concessional class that brought working aged siblings, parents, nephews, nieces and adult children of existing Australian residents into Australia (PAM 1994, Sch 2.1; Migration Regulations 1994, Sch 6A). This class, although points tested, was at the time classified within the family reunification stream. It had a lower pass mark than that for standard skilled immigration and was granted points for familial relationships, which meant that fewer of

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Mary Gilmartin

belonging may be experienced. These two reasons – alternately social and spatial – mean that, while belonging may well be felt and experienced, it is difficult to fully understand what it means. This is summed up in the difference between ‘place-belongingness’ and the ‘politics of belonging’: the emotional connections that we as individuals have to particular places, and the ways in which people are politically excluded from belonging to those places (Antonsich 2010). The temptations and complications of belonging become even more evident in association with migration