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resources now has to be shared up among a growing number of actors, stretching limited resources even further. Likewise, by seeking to address security threats in a comprehensive and holistic manner—a key principle of human security approach—­ prioritization becomes exceedingly difficult. Stemming ethnic conflict may be the goal, for instance, but addressing underlying structural problems of resource competition, migration patterns, political disenfranchisement, or poverty make resource prioritization a Herculean task. Who gets what and how much? Where and when should

in African security in the twenty-first century

sustained or long-term peace support operations on the continent without the requisite financial, logistical, and technological capacity of external donors. In addition, the same level of commitment has not fully been translated to other security challenges, such as public health, food security, climate change, and migration. These non-traditional security issues often require long-term commitments, but due to the nature of Africa’s many impoverished states and their lack of resources, they have often ceded responsibility to international organizations, aid agencies, and

in African security in the twenty-first century
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Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order revisited

Trade Organization, the exceptional health of the US domestic budget and the rapidly emerging commercial applications of the internet. At the end of 1994 the collapse of public finances in Mexico, within a year of the ratification of the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA), required a US Federal Reserve bail-​out of some US$50 billion and opened a phase of commercial, security and migration crises that would preoccupy Huntington so sharply that they dominated the final chapter of his book. The intervening need for the US Marine Corps to invade a badly destabilised

in American foreign policy

-border participation in a common discourse. All this makes the Arab world, in Noble’s (1991: 56) words, a ‘vast sound chamber’ in which ideas and information circulate widely. In addition, similar food, marriage and child-rearing practices, music and art are recognisable region-wide. Extended family ties frequently crossed borders and cross-border immigration has been constant: in the 1950s there were major flows of Palestinian refugees; since the 1970s labour migration to the Gulf oil-producing states has been substantial. Niblock (1990) argues that the interests of the separate

in The international politics of the Middle East
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stimulate growth in ways that inter-state rivalries have inhibited. This could not be an unalloyed abdication of human responsibility – globalisation also presents challenges which human agency will be called upon to overcome. Thus, more active liberal approaches are stimulated by new global problems such as migration, environmental decay and contagious new wars. However, these further erode the power of the state, as, being global problems, they demand global authority to overcome them. Thus Peter Hain could write about ‘The End of Foreign Policy’ and Clare Short could

in Britain and Africa under Blair
Screening war in Kosovo and Chechnya

, No. 109 (2006), p. 1. Kaldor, New and Old Wars. E. Newman, ‘The “New Wars” Debate: A Historical Perspective is Needed’, Security Globalisation and conflict: screening war 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Dialogue, Vol. 35, No. 2 (2004), pp. 173–189; Erik Melander, Magnus Öberg and Jonathan Hall, ‘Are ‘New Wars’ More Atrocious? Battle Severity, Civilians Killed and Forced Migration Before and After the End of the Cold War’, European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 15, No. 3 (2009), pp. 505–536. Kaldor, ‘The “New War” in Iraq

in Contemporary violence
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Significantly, the poverty and breakdown of law and order in Albania also led families to seek employment in neighbouring countries. The incremental migration that had been ongoing since the end of the Cold War gathered pace, giving Albanian groups a foothold in Italy and more generally across Europe. This created a network of Albanian groups, some of whom were involved in criminality. The trafficking of people, arms and drugs meant the Albanian mafia quickly became influential in the region, providing a clandestine support network and secretive clan-based organisation rooted

in Contemporary violence
The case of Ker Kwaro Acholi in northern Uganda
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

presents four significant, yet largely fabricated claims. These are that the revived clan chiefs form an historical alliance, known as Ker Kwaro Acholi, which comes from the Luo group and dates back to a migration into Acholiland in the fifteenth century; that today Ker Kwaro Acholi’s council of clan chiefs constitutes a homogenous group hailing from lineages holding the same office in the pre-colonial period; that the traditional roles of the council of clan chiefs were and remain primarily as peacemakers and custodians of Acholi cultural practices; and finally that Ker

in Images of Africa
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. Smith and P. Stares (eds), Diasporas in Conflict: Peacemakers or Peace-wreckers (New York: United Nations University Press, 2007); F. Cochrane, Migration and Security in the Global Age: Diaspora Communities and Conflict (New York: Routledge, 2015). 31 For example, see N. Abu Sandal, ‘Religious actors as epistemic communities in conflict transformation: The cases of South Africa and Northern Ireland’, Review of International Studies, 37:3 (2011), 929–49. 32 See J. D. Brewer, G. I. Higgins, and F. Teeney, Religion, Civil Society, & Peace in Northern Ireland (Oxford

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
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Northern Ireland’s unique history with DDR

of youth combatants in Liberia’, (Sussex: Sussex Center for Migration Studies Working Paper 29, 2006).  9 Independent Monitoring Commission, Twenty-Sixth and Final Report, p. 13. 10 C. Buchanan and J. Chavez, Negotiating Disarmament: Guns and Violence in the El Salvador Peace Negotiations (Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 2008). 11 J. Morgenstein, Consolidating Disarmament Lessons from Colombia’s Reintegration Program for Demobilized Paramilitaries (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2008). 12 The Agreement Reached in the Multi

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland