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and police co-operation
progress in areas transferred to the First Pillar, such as drugs policy and migration matters).128 Across the board, progress in police and customs co-operation,
prevention of organised crime and wider judicial co-operation in criminal matters was considered as ‘insufficient’, with over a quarter of the previously agreed
initiatives delayed. Breaking the headline figures down further, there was an even
split for both asylum, migration and border matters and the wider creation of a
European asylum system, with half the initiatives achieved
British regional power. 74 It enabled the Shah to state that ‘in 25 years Iran will be one of the world's five flourishing and prosperous nations … I think that in 10 years’ time our country will be as you [Britain] are now’. 75
One of his more well-known actions was the replacement of the traditional Islamic calendar, based on the migration of the Prophet Mohammad from Mecca to Medina, to a fictitious calendar centred on the coronation of Cyrus the Great. 76 Shifting from a religious calendar to one that celebrated the reign of
up to the end of 2007.
For details, see Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council (Brussels, 1993).
See The Hague Programme: Strengthening Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union
(Brussels, November 2004).
See, for example, Malcolm Anderson, ‘Border Regimes and Security in an Enlarged European
Community: Implications of the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty’, EUI Working
Paper No. 8 (2000); Eberhard Bort, ‘Illegal Migration and Cross-Border Crime: Challenges
at the Eastern Frontier of the European Union’, EUI Working Paper No. 9 (2000
8 For details, see the 2005 Convention between the Kingdom of Belgium, the Federal Republic
of Germany, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, the
Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Republic of Austria on the stepping up of Cross- border Cooperation, particularly in Combating Terrorism, Cross Border Crime and Illegal Migration.
9 Security considerations led to two different versions of Europol’s Organised Crime Threat
Assessment (OCTA) being developed, one for member states only. The OCTA was produced
for the first time in