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government, only for them to be reduced by the next. Local authorities themselves shifted policy, not only according to national government legislation, finance and the condition of the market but also depending on which party had control of the Town Hall. The different political parties had their own ideologically based solutions. Much of this has been well documented. However, this only partly explains the creation and administration of policy. A distinct cultural context provided the environment in which the decision-making process functioned. Civic culture was shaped

in The politics of housing
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Australian activists on the age of consent and prostitution

Two of the central claims of this book are that in the field of sexuality politics there was life beyond England, and that geographical perspectives can throw light on this by illuminating non-metropolitan sites of political action. Beginning with Malabari, I have suggested that people in colonies exercised some control over legal and political transplantation and transformation, and that this control was site specific, shaped (but not determined) by local conditions. To more fully develop this case, it helps to turn

in Sex, politics and empire

might be considered as the emergence of humanitarian concerns in the period. Further, the chapter also considers the ways in which the hunger of distant others helped to shape the political understandings of hunger in a colonial age. It does not explore the central governmental response to these famines – though this provides a critical context – but instead examines popular

in The politics of hunger
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never ceased to threaten those living near the breadline. Indeed, the continuing use of the term breadline – first used at the turn of the twentieth-century – is in itself an invocation of the importance of historical hunger politics in the present: a reference to the long-term centrality of bread to the diet of the poor and to the persistent idea that the most basic definition of poverty is being

in The politics of hunger
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League for Democracy (NLD) won a resounding victory. 5 SLORC refused to hand over power until it had assembled a National Convention to draw up a new constitution. Twenty years were to elapse before a convention (of sorts) was to meet. During that time the tatmadaw (Burmese armed forces) became ever more powerful, SLORC rebranded itself as State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), Burma changed its name to Myanmar and close ties were cultivated with China. 6 Political dissidence was suppressed, political

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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The educational “system” of eighteenth-century France

were generally administered or staffed by the Church, they were overseen, financed, and supported by political authorities, often accounting for 10 percent of municipal expenses.3 Prior to their expulsion from Paris in 1762, and from all of France in 1764, the Jesuits administered more than 100 of the collèges, making them the most prominent of the teaching orders and among the most influential actors in eighteenth-century French education. Unsurprisingly, their expulsion brought with it increased scrutiny to the wide array of schools and to the relationships among

in In pursuit of politics

Shapely 02 2/8/07 01:32 Page 52 2 National interpretations Although local authorities worked within a common framework of national legislation and policy directives from the government, policy was also determined by local problems, council politics, the attitude of local authority officials and the distinct urban culture in which cities operated. Understanding the complexities of the policy process, appreciating the process of government and governance across urban society, underlines the importance of locality. This chapter highlights the significance of

in The politics of housing
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essays in colonisation? Certainly the missionaries acted out microcosmic dramas against the backdrop of colonial politics and imperial wars. 4 Between the point of British Empire and counter-point of Burmese nationalism, four factions jostled for position. Seventy-seven Methodist missionaries occupy centre stage in this account. For eighty years they wrote weekly dispatches describing life, politics and events. However, they were participants as well as chroniclers. Sometimes they ruffled feathers and sometimes poured

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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Introducing a stronger form of regulation in Bombay

Colonies could be proactive as well as reactive sites of sexuality politics, generating new ideas and strategies. For instance, in the British Empire, CD laws made their first appearance in colonies, initially in the form of military customs and later in civil legislation. When CD Acts were finally passed for England, they were based on schemes and statutes applied in India, the Ionian Islands, Malta, Gibraltar and Hong Kong. 1 Building on the previous chapter, which concluded somewhat tentatively that the colonial

in Sex, politics and empire
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Power, control and the 1830 Beer Act

provided a lucrative source of excise duties. These tensions would come to a head in 1830 with the passing of a Beer Act which would, in one dramatic move, undo almost three centuries of work towards placing beer retail under magisterial control. The 1830 Beer Act represented a victory of free trade capitalism over the established power of local economic and political elites and was an experiment as radical, in its own way, as the attempted gin prohibition of 1736. One impact of the 1830 Beer Act would 80 chap7.indd 80 22/06/2009 10:55:13 Odious monopolies be to

in The politics of alcohol