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Unionist Party (DUP) since 2001, had increased friction in devolved government; particularly, over such issues as decommissioning, parades, policing and justice. In the course of 2002, already tense working relationships were stretched to breaking point and in October, then Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, John Reid, suspended devolved government at Stormont under controversial circumstances. Although London and Dublin came together in April 2003 to announce a joint proposal for forward movement, elections scheduled for May were postponed amid gloomy political

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century

been viewed as an outlet for European imperialist expansion, as well as Europe’s search for wealth and new markets, two important characteristics of colonialism—defense of territory and maintaining control—would ­ come to form the crucial underpinnings of colonial involvement on the continent. Moreover, these features would later become the accepted building blocks of African security in the post-independence era. This legacy has helped to create a modern-day peace and security architecture that is largely state-centric and serving the self-interests of political

in African security in the twenty-first century
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’ are particularly rigorous when Hanoi plays host to an international event, such as political summits or sporting competitions (Jensen & Peppard 2007 , 232–3). At other times, arrangements may possibly be made with local administrators, although their tolerance does not guarantee that of a higher-level authority (Koh 2006 , 12). The street can be taken as a metaphor for the fluidity of Vietnam’s state–society relations

in Soldered states

conflict diamonds of Sierra Leone and the mineral wealth of the DRC, natural resources have been integral elements of these political struggles. UN environmental experts believe that 40 percent of all intrastate conflicts around the world in the last 60 years have links to natural resources, and “that this link doubles the risk of a conflict relapse in the first five years.”1 Furthermore, over the past two decades some 18 violent 170 African security in the twenty-first century conflicts have been fueled by the exploitation of natural resources.2 But what exactly is

in African security in the twenty-first century

14 Moving out of conflict Dr Maurice Hayes Introduction When Maurice Hayes lectured on ‘Moving out of conflict’ on 4 June 2007, his title seemed especially apt, since the devolved administration which had come into existence as a result of the St Andrews Agreement was scarcely a month old. While it might have been tempting to dwell upon the political implications of what had been, by any measure, a remarkable transformation of the political dynamic, he was sufficiently immersed in the complex fabric of Northern Ireland affairs to reflect more broadly on how

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
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International Relations theory and Germany

involved, the development of the discipline and the view of Germany in the discipline. The contributors to this volume extend this tradition; they have studied, researched or taught outside their home countries. They are particularly sensitive to the perception others – most notably Americans – have of Germany and how these understandings reflect both historical developments in which Germany played a central role but also ongoing controversies and political projects in these other countries. In this final chapter I focus on Germany and IR theory. There is widespread

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks

political machinations of outside forces, it is now also viewed as a caldron and incubator of global instability and insecurity. Once ignored as strategically irrelevant, the Africa of the twenty-first century now, more than ever, matters to the rest of the world. Simply ignoring it is no longer an option, because in a globalizing world, insecurity anywhere is a threat to security everywhere. For the cost of failing to adequately address African security problems in the coming decades of this new century will come at a price, which African countries are increasingly

in African security in the twenty-first century

notice as a regular broadcaster with Raidio Telefis Eireann (RTE). As a result of a repositioning of Irish politics in 1985, a new political party, the Progressive Democrats was formed, and he became its first Secretary General and Director of Elections. It was in the Progressive Democrat interest that he was elected to the European Parliament from the Munster constituency in 1989, subsequently standing as an Independent. From 1998 to 2002, he was Leader of the Liberal Democrat group of members. His career in Brussels and Strasbourg was crowned when he became President

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Britain, 1940–43
Andrew Williams

approach to the future that was to have elements of harmony, but also elements of discord, with the American NWO. Both of these aspects will be explored in the following pages. British war and post-war aims came to be developed through a very lopsided discussion with American power, with a clear lead coming from the United States. Britain emerges in the role of ‘first follower’. It has often been said that the British are deeply suspicious of grand designs in politics, that they believe in an organic development based on sound ‘realist’ or ‘pragmatic’ principles. A

in Failed imagination?

thing however did not fit in the new reality – the existence of Palestinian citizens. What is the appropriate discourse for dealing with them? This question became unavoidable as a call for general elections to be held in late January 1949 was issued. Should these Palestinians be allowed to establish their political parties and take part in the forthcoming elections as ordinary citizens? Or should the racial boundaries that had been promoted by Zionism during the British Mandate be reinstated (Sa’di, 2004a)? Yet, maybe a Machiavellian alternative could be found in

in Thorough surveillance