newspapers and took a prominent place in social investigations.
In English Journey, Priestley conveys how the means test was slowly
becoming part of general conversation amongst the working class in the
north-east; there was a ‘never-ending stream of talk about books, plays,
railways, shipbuilding, coal, the Means Test, Russia, Germany, politics,
sport, life and death’. He further commented ‘our merry laughter rang out
whenever the Means Test was mentioned, for it was amusing to find Britannia
herself, with her Lion and her Unicorn, in our midst, cross-examining old
Schatz, S. (2002) ‘Age Cohort Effects in the Breakdown of Single-Party Rule’, Journal of
Ageing Studies 16: 199–219.
Tilley, J. and Evans, G. (2014) ‘Ageing and Generational Effects on Vote Choice: Combining
Cross-Sectional and Panel Data to Estimate APC Effects’, Electoral Studies 33: 19–27.
Wagner, C., Konzelmann, L. and Rattinger, H. (2012) ‘Is Germany Going Bananas? Life
Cycle and Cohort Effects on Party Performance in Germany from 1953 to 2049’, GermanPolitics 21: 274–95.
Webb, P. and Childs, S. (2012) ‘Gender Politics and Conservatism: The View
2007), http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6350847.stm ; E.
Lucas , The New Cold War: How the Kremlin Menaces both Russia and the
West ( London : Bloomsbury , 2008 ).
‘Speech at meeting with Germanpolitical,
parliamentary and civic leaders’ (5 June 2008), http://archive.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/2008/06/05/2203_type82912type82914type84779
shows, the Germanpolitical system reﬂects the different inﬂuences and political structures favoured by the Allies after the
war and are displayed in the local governmental systems of those parts of
Germany that were under British, American or French control.20 It was
in the southern German Länder, controlled by the Americans, where the
directly elected German mayor arose and where most directly elected
German mayors can be found (not all German mayors are directly
elected). Since the 1990s, however, the direct election of the mayor has
spread quickly across German
of an editor ...? Is it the
Kaiser’s and the Kaiserin’s arm-in-arm friendship with the Sultan
... or is it the hand shakes which the Kaiser offers to over-zealous,
naive sentinels, who, in a state of total peace, shoot down, without
hesitation, a drunken citizen, which should be celebrated by the
In a short follow-up letter, in response to the Institute’s urging that he
reconsider, he says this: ‘I do not fit in with the new Germanpolitical
spirit. I am the oldest descendant of a family which was heavily
involved in the 1848 uprising, and I
electoral politics. The way in which parties have built on this constitutional
and legislative status to become so pervasive a force within the Germanpolitical process also is discussed. The second aspect is the selection of candidates: for both single-member constituencies and Land party lists.
Third, campaign planning and organisation require attention, since they
are becoming increasingly important in relation to campaign strategy.
The constitutional and legislative basis of the German party-‘state’
There have been numerous diagnoses of the reasons for the
’, Comparative Political Studies, 31 (3):
Jahn, D. and Henn, M. (2000) ‘The “new” rhetoric of New Labour in comparative
perspective: a three-country discourse analysis’, West European Politics, 23 (1),
Kelly, P. (1976) The Unmaking of Gough (Sydney: Angus & Robertson).
Kesselman, M. (1982) ‘Prospects for democratic socialism in advanced capitalism:
class struggle and compromise in Sweden and France’, Politics & Society, 11.
Kitschelt, H. (2000) ‘The Germanpolitical economy and the 1998 election’, in D.
P. Conradt, G. R. Kleingeld and C
–Green Coalition in Germany. Politics, Personalities and Power
(Manchester: Manchester University Press).
Levitas, R. (1998) The Inclusive Society? Social Exclusion and New Labour (London:
Mahnkopf, B. (2000) ‘Formel 1 der neuen Sozialdemokratie: Gerechtigkeit
durch Ungleichheit. Zur Neuinterpretation der sozialen Frage im globalen
Kapitalismus’, Prokla. Zeitschrift für kritische Sozialwissenschaft, 121/30, 4
Marquand, D. (1999) The Progressive Dilemma: from Lloyd George to Blair (Phoenix:
Merkel, W. (2000) ‘Soziale Gerechtigkeit in Zeiten der
334–6). These were a manifestation of a degree of mobilisation and radicalisation not seen before the war. The political strikes organised by the German
council and socialisation movement between January and April 1919 put
industrial and social democracy – viewed as a necessary base to defend
the young Germanpolitical democracy – squarely on the political agenda
(Oertzen 2004: 345–51). The lack of food, shelter and other basic goods
had also led to a militant mobilisation of consumers during the war, mainly
initiated by women with a working
’s election programme ‘Green Is the Change’,
the 1998 version still aimed at abolishing both NATO and the
Longhurst, Germany and the use of force.qxd
Adjusting to life after the Cold War
Bundeswehr.34 The Greens’ position was that only in cases of genocide,
and then only with a UN mandate, should the Bundeswehr be used.
Of perhaps less consequence at this stage of developments was the
perspective of the former Communist Party on the use of force: the PDS’s
stance resulted in the most uncompromising policy of any of those in