This book is a study of two post-war Muslim ethnic minority communities that have been overwhelmingly neglected in the academic literature and public debate on migration to Britain and Germany: those of Newcastle upon Tyne and Bremen. In what is the first work to offer a comparative assessment of Muslim migrant populations at a local level between these two countries, it provides an examination of everyday immigrant experiences and a reassessment of ethnic minority integration on a European scale. It traces the development of Muslim migrants from their arrival to and settlement in these post-industrial societies through to their emergence as fixed attributes on their cities’ landscapes. Through its focus on the employment, housing and education sectors, this study exposes the role played by ethnic minority aspirations and self-determination. Other themes that run throughout include the long-term effects of Britain and Germany’s overarching post-war immigration frameworks; the convergence between local policies and Muslim ethnic minority behaviour in both cities; and the extent to which Islam, the size of migrant communities, and regional identity influence the integration process. The arguments and debates addressed are not only pertinent to Newcastle and Bremen, but have a nation- and Europe-wide relevance, with the conclusions transgressing the immediate field of historical studies. This book is essential reading for academics and students alike with an interest in migration studies, modern Britain and Germany, and the place of Islam in contemporary Europe.
This book explores how Muslims, Christians and Jews interacted in frontier zones of the early modern Mediterranean (primarily 1530–1670), and how they developed a frontier consciousness that took into account how their interlocutors thought and acted. Sources used include the gamut of genres ranging from factual to fictive, from inquisitional records and different sorts of treatises to plays, novels and (auto)biographies, in numerous languages of the Mediterranean. The Muslim-Christian divide in the Mediterranean produced an unusual kind of slavery, fostered a surge in conversion to Islam, offered an ideal setting for Catholic martyrdom in its rivalry with Protestantism, and provided a haven of sorts for Spanish Muslims (Moriscos) as well as Jews. The book argues that identities and alterities were multiple and versatile, that there was no war between Christianity and Islam during the early modern period, that ‘popular religion’ prevailed over theological principles, that women experienced slavery and religious conversion differently from men, that commerce prevailed over ideology and dogma, and that ‘positive’ human relations among people of different categories were not only possible but inevitable despite prevailing hostile conditions. In the spirit of Braudel, who asserts that ‘the Mediterranean speaks with many voices; it is a sum of individual histories’, this book endeavours to allow the people of the early modern Mediterranean to be heard more than one can find in any other study till now, and strives to cast all its major themes in a new light.
It is surprising, at this point in the story of the rich and strange rediscovery of a text so important to French and English literary and social history, that no collection of scholarly essays related to Mandeville's Travels yet exists in English or French. This book is a collection of essays by scholars in England and France, who produce a complex and sometimes contradictory view of Mandeville's book as an important object of early modern attention, as well as a feature of early modern literary context. The chapters range in emphasis from textual and bibliographic studies of Mandeville's late medieval and early modern Nachleben to studies of 'Mandevillian ideologies', to readings of romances and especially theatrical productions, illuminated by understandings of the new life in print of the Travels and its excerpted account of the Levant. Part I of the book makes clear that there were profound changes in motives for publication, anthologisation and readerly reception of the text(s) from the time of the incunabula, through its use by explorers Columbus, Frobisher and Ralegh, to its appearance as a children's book in the Enlightenment. These changes underscore alterations of economies and geographical experience in the mostly post-medieval 'Age of Discovery'. Part II is on Mandevillian ideologies and examines the Nachleben of the Travels through a historical discourse on the Turks and Islam in early modern England, development and geography of scripture. Part III is on Mandevillian and focuses on the drama of the newly invented medium of the commercial theatre.
Race by any other name: Islam and the
contestation of citizenship
And now what will become of us without Barbarians?
Those people were some sort of a solution.
In an increasingly politically and economically unified and internationalist
Europe, how does a new European culture define itself? The process of selfdefinition, creating zones of exclusion within Europe, may be one way, especially
if those zones are located within ethnicities and religions. Islam has historically
occupied the liminal zones of a “secular” but historically Christian
heritage; an American Muslim and a former Muslim of Palestinian and mixed Palestinian heritage; a Moroccan Muslim settled in France; and a secular Lebanese Muslim of Druze heritage living in America. The wide range of cultural reference, the plethora of ethnic configurations of Islam, and a number of unusual minorities within Islam – such as Ismailism and Druzism – all help us reflect on how the lived experiences of Muslims and their assembled identities easily outgrow the narrow dictates set by modern iterations of Islam, such as Salafism or Wahhabism. According to
In the search for Sir John
Mandeville that occupies Giles Milton’s The Riddle and the
Knight (1996), Milton relates a meeting he has with the
Mufti of Northern Cyprus, Ahmed Djemal. After some discussion
through an interpreter about Islam in Cyprus, tourism and extremism,
they turn to the text of The Travels . Milton continues
‘Their way or no way’: anti-Islam and
In the previous chapter it was argued that there is an aspiration to non-racism
among both grass roots and leadership of the EDL, albeit one that is neither fully
achieved nor shared universally among those encountered in EDL milieux. In
this chapter it is demonstrated that, in sharp contrast to the importance attached
to distancing themselves from racism as they understand it, EDL activists openly
articulate the belief that there is a ‘problem’ with Islam that is not associated with
This book has examined the formation
of English national identities in relation to Islam during the late
nineteenth century through the lens of four historical developments:
British anti-slavery efforts in occupied Egypt; the activities of the
BFASS in regard to that campaign; gender conflicts and debates in
English society; and the creation of a place for Islam in England in the
In events that have since become known as the Arab Uprisings or Arab Revolutions,
people across the Middle East took to the streets to express their anger and
frustration at political climates, demanding political and economic reform. In a
number of cases, protest movements were repressed, often violently, with
devastating repercussions for human security and peace across the
region. While a number of scholars have sought to understand how the
protests occurred, this book looks at sovereignty and the relationship between
rulers and ruled to identify and understand both the roots of this anger but
also the mechanisms through which regimes were able to withstand seemingly
existential pressures and maintain power.
This book regards Arab Islamism and liberalism as distinct political ideologies with all-encompassing views on the structure and appropriate roles of society and the state. The thesis presented here on the different functions of Israel and Zionism within these two ideologies refers to a protracted period of time. It also establishes several generalizations about the actions of individuals and groups in a vast geographic and linguistic space. The book first offers a chronological overview of the Islamist ideological opposition to Zionism. It portrays the main characteristics of and driving forces behind this resistance and explores the different pragmatic approaches toward Israel that have developed in the various epochs of Islamist thought. The book then discusses Islamist depictions of Zionism and Israel as role models and analyses the reasons for the formation and acceptance of such interpretations. It also offers a chronological overview of the evolution of liberal thought with regard to the Zionist enterprise. It depicts the various perceptions of peace and normalization created within this thought and demonstrates the contradictory ways in which the Arab liberal struggle for freedom and democracy has been intertwined with the Israeli-Arab conflict. Finally, the book discusses liberal interpretations that represent Zionism and Israel as role models, and analyses the reasons for the formation and acceptance of such interpretations.