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E.A. Jones

characteristically rhapsodic writing on the love of God and contemplation with open and engaging advice and encouragement like this, written from one solitary to another, and between friends. Translated from Rolle’s Middle English, ‘The Form of Living’, i.56–85, 92–107; vii.28–51, in English Writings of Richard Rolle, Hermit of Hampole , edited by H.E. Allen (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931). Some are deceived with too much desire and delight

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550
The case of Le Menagier de Paris
Glenn Burger

Minnesota Press, 1987); Manuel De Landa, A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity (New  York:  Continuum, 2006); and Paul Holchak, ‘Intelligent Bodies and Embodied Minds: Reading Religious Performance in Middle English Writing From Syon Abbey, Nicholas Love, William Langland, and John Gower’, unpublished dissertation, The Graduate Center, CUNY, 2017. But, given the significance of performative reading practices in developing such agency and in entangling knowledge consumption and production in such useful ways, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick’s use of

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France
Sarah Stanbury

its white feathers, appears to be an originary, avian gift that, like Phebus’s musicality, has a structural association with home. The tale is a fable, of course, and set in a mythic world of origins; yet repeatedly the Manciple reminds us of its proximity to human inhabitation and ordinary home life—​‘heere in this erthe adoun’ where Phebus ‘dwells’ (IX. 105). Middle English ‘dwell’, like the word in modern English, has connotations of proximity and domesticity; to dwell is to be near and not alien.17 Like most fourteenth-​century homes, Phebus’s is comprised of

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France
Tim William Machan

necessarily advance broad issues of cultural memory, with the result that mutual intelligibility can function as a trope for whatever identifications one wants to draw; as compelling as the evidence for North-west Germanic may be, indeed, similar claims about mutual intelligibility (hence, genealogical closeness) have been claimed for Old English with Old Saxon and Old Frisian as well. 18 All of which means that the question of whether Old Norse and Old English (or modern Norwegian and modern English or modern Swedish and Middle English) are effectively the same

in Northern memories and the English Middle Ages
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Mending roads, being social
Valerie Allen

this sense to refer to a carpenter mending a broken hous.7 Where phrasal verbs afflict modern English idiom, requiring one to ‘break into a church and steal the chalice’, in Middle English one may simply ‘breke a chirche and stele the chalice’.8 Context alone determines whether to breken an object means to share it, or stop it, or unstop it, or smash it to smithereens (now, break up), or penetrate it (now, break into or through), or erupt from it (now, break out).9 A route that is broken equivocates meaningfully between blockage and perforation, affording alternative

in Roadworks
Michelle M. Sauer

, a ‘cheerless necessity’, while work could be intangible yet is remembered and real, a significant creation. Uebel and Robertson further clarify that ‘the result of its [labour’s] effort is consumed 162 Michelle M. Sauer nearly as quickly as the effort is expended’, while the results of work are more long-lasting.15 This is demonstrated in the definitions of the words themselves. In Middle English, swink and travail are used almost interchangeably for ‘physical labor, hard work, and toil’, while werk is reserved for ‘a discrete act’, and, moreover, ‘a morally

in Roadworks
Open Access (free)
Reading practices and participation in digital and medieval media
Heather Blatt

a writer who accepts and responds to the authority of a reader occurs at a critical moment in the history of medieval English literature. From the late fourteenth to the early sixteenth centuries, expanding literacy among the upwardly mobile mercantile and professional classes 2 Participatory reading in late-medieval England of England created new audiences desirous of vernacular reading material. At the same time, writers approached composition in Middle English with increasing interest and vigour, exploring the shifting boundaries of their role in the

in Participatory reading in late-medieval England
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Rachel Stenner, Tamsin Badcoe and Gareth Griffith

reader of Spenser who knows Chaucer and Middle English well, the continually met Chaucerian words, forms, and turns of speech are a constant indication of an imagination saturated with Chaucer’s poetry’. 36 The triumvirate of Chaucer, Spenser and Milton was expanded to a quartet by the addition of T.S. Eliot in Clare Kinney’s 1992 monograph, Strategies of Poetic Narrative . Kinney’s study, which uses a narratological approach, focuses on the same three long poems as Maresca, but also incorporates The Waste Land . She elegantly

in Rereading Chaucer and Spenser
Open Access (free)
What lovers want
Arlyn Diamond

both ought to get what they want. In Degrevant marriage reconciles two enemies, incorporating into an established household and lineage new blood on the basis of merit, not just inherited rank, and validating women’s right to choose a husband. Moreover, as so often in Middle English popular romances, (Havelok or William of Palerne or The King of Tars, for instance) the marriage between hero and heroine delineates the intersection of the personal and the social, the masculine and the feminine, intersections which will form the focus of this essay. Degrevant is written

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
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Green reading
Gillian Rudd

readers. At the same time, working with material such as Chaucer’s poetry, the works of the Pearl poet and Langland will show that green concerns are not restricted to texts that deal exclusively and obviously with human/non-human nature relations. That is not to say that green analysis of less well-known material should not be done, merely that it is not done here. Which brings us to the question: what is ecocriticism? Rebecca Douglass has provided a succinct definition in her article ‘Ecocriticism and Middle English Literature’ where she says: ‘ecocriticism is reading

in Greenery