Part II Conceptual and methodological issues How are we to evaluate parental power? In the next four chapters, I will look at the conceptual and methodological issues raised by that question. I make the case for a pluralist approach to methodology generally and the conceptualisation of power more specifically. This is necessary, I will try to show, as efforts to reduce plurality fail. When we evaluate parental power, there is an irreducible plurality of morally significant features and of relevant moral considerations. In addition, because of this irreducible

in Evaluating parental power
Abstract only
Some moral aspects and variables

13 Terrorism: some moral aspects and variables The question of ‘who’ exercises force is often neglected in studies of terrorism. As we have seen, the generic concept of terrorism excludes it and concentrates instead on the question of ‘what is done to whom’. Here the status of the subject or agent who employs force (unlike that of the object or target of attack) is of marginal interest and relevance. It is what the subject does, not who the subject is, that is of primary moral interest and concern. But is the status of the agent of so little importance? How can

in The ethics of war
Just war, past and present

Rodin 2006a). Another leading ‘revisionist’, Jeff McMahan, finds some of the theory’s basic assumptions and key principles so unconvincing that, as it stands, ‘the traditional view . . . has no coherent moral foundation’ (McMahan 2009, p. 1). In like manner, Nick Fotion argues for ‘a new just war theory’ on the grounds that ‘Just War Theory as it is classically understood appears to be too narrowly constructed’ to deal effectively with the challenge of contemporary warfare (Fotion 2007, p. 97), a judgement which invokes the commonly held view that ‘traditional just

in The ethics of war

10 Why we should save the anthropocentric person Simon Woods Moral foundations In order to ‘do’ ethics we need to have an account of the kinds of thing that matter, morally speaking. This is surely the preeminent question for moral philosophers, and John Harris’s introduction to medical ethics, The Value of Life (1985)1 (henceforth TVL) is no exception, since it begins by addressing the very point. Looking back over the thirty odd years in which the book has been around it is clear that the approach was fresh, provocative, broadly coherent and had much to say

in From reason to practice in bioethics
An anthology of literary texts and contexts

This book is an anthology of selections from works dealing with same-sex love, desire, sexual acts, and relationships during the period 1550-1735 in early modern England. It presents religious and moral writings, pseudo-medical writings, criminal pamphlets, travel writings, and letters on same-sex desire. The condemnation of male and female same-sex sexual acts is embedded in the earliest Christian theology. The early modern medical, pseudo-medical, and anatomical texts in Latin are surprisingly reticent about the physiological and anatomical aspects of homoerotic sexuality and desire. Canon law had long condemned male same-sex sexual acts. The 1533-34 statute in England forbade male same-sex sexual acts but ignored female same-sex intercourse. English travel narratives dealing with the sexual customs of other cultures often present sexual licentiousness as endemic, sometimes touching specifically on sodomy and tribadism. The most detailed presentations of same-sex erotic relationships in non-European cultures are those relating to Turkey and the Turkish seraglio. Familiar letters, such as between James I and VI, could reveal personal secrets and be radically transgressive in their emphasis on fostering love and desire. The book discusses homo-sexual subculture during 1700-1730, translation of Latin and Greek texts, and numerous literature representing male and female same-sex erotic relationships. The largely 'socially diffused homosexuality' of the seventeenth century changed profoundly with 'clothes, gestures, language' connoting 'homosexuality'. The book shows how literary genres of male same-sex and female-sex desires such as Shakespeare's Sonnets, and Catherine Trotter's Agnes de Castro allow the modern reader to chart changes in their representation.

Abstract only

11 Peacemaking ‘Make war breed peace; make peace stint war.’1 The just war tradition upholds the primacy of peace over war. War has no intrinsic or independent value. Its moral worth is of a wholly instrumental kind and is conditional upon the subordination of war to peace. War is acceptable only as a form of peacemaking. Fundamentally, it is not the ius ad bellum that a just war vindicates, but the ius ad pacem. Peace is the goal and the measure of the just war from beginning to end. It is war’s essential moral context. The primacy of peace is evident in the

in The ethics of war
Abstract only

3 Pacifism Pacifism harms and benefits the just war tradition in about equal measure. Its blanket condemnation of all things military (in some cases more presumed than real) disrupts the kind of moral regulation of war to which just war theorists aspire: war is considered to be beyond the reach of morality. At the same time it assists the just war project by its general insistence on the subordination of war to peace and by its creative and constructive understanding of peace and peacemaking. In fact pacifists and just war theorists share similar aspirations

in The ethics of war
Living with the enemy in First World War France

This study considers the ways in which locals of the occupied Nord responded to and understood their situation across four years of German domination, focusing in particular on key behaviours adopted by locals, and the way in which such conduct was perceived. Behaviours examined include forms of complicity, misconduct, disunity, criminality, and resistance. This local case study calls into question overly-patriotic readings of this experience, and suggests a new conceptual vocabulary to help understand certain civilian behaviours under military occupation.

Drawing on extensive primary documentation – from diaries and letters to posters and police reports – this book proposes that a dominant ‘occupied culture’ existed among locals. This was a moral-patriotic framework, born of both pre-war socio-cultural norms and daily interaction with the enemy, that guided conduct and was especially concerned with what was considered acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Those who breached the limits of this occupied culture faced criticism and sometimes punishment. This study attempts to disentangle perceptions and reality, but also argues that the clear beliefs and expectations of the occupied French comprise a fascinating subject of study in their own right. They provide an insight into national and local identity, and especially the way in which locals understood their role within the wider conflict.

This book will be useful to undergraduates, post-graduates and academics interested in an understudied aspect of the history of modern France, the First World War, and military occupations.

Abstract only

 193 Conclusion Chartism’s moral politics and improvement culture were strategic interventions rather than dilutions of the movement’s objectives and aspirations. Those Chartist leaders who turned to the politics of improvement did so to build the movement towards a position of Radical working-​class hegemony. In the process, this moral politics and its associated culture would grapple with and thereby alleviate social grievances in a way that did not incorporate the plotting and revolutionary violence which had failed in 1839. However, this approach proved to

in Popular virtue
Moral prevention work with girls

3 ‘Modesty is the sister of virtue’: moral prevention work with girls The old adage that ‘prevention is better than cure’ began to be recognised from the end of the nineteenth century, by those engaged in philanthropic work with women involved in prostitution.1 To try and prevent girls from ‘falling’ became the aim of a variety of informal and voluntary organisations, rather than focusing solely on the reformation of those who had already ‘fallen’.2 This chapter focuses on the organisations and discourses in Northern Ireland concerned with preserving female

in Regulating sexuality