Drawing together essays written by scholars from Great Britain and the United States, this book provides an important contribution to the emerging field of disability history. It explores the development of modern transatlantic prosthetic industries in nineteenth and twentieth centuries and reveals how the co-alignment of medicine, industrial capitalism, and social norms shaped diverse lived experiences of prosthetic technologies and in turn, disability identities. Through case studies that focus on hearing aids, artificial tympanums, amplified telephones, artificial limbs, wigs and dentures, this book provides a new account of the historic relationship between prostheses, disability and industry. Essays draw on neglected source material, including patent records, trade literature and artefacts, to uncover the historic processes of commodification surrounding different prostheses and the involvement of neglected companies, philanthropists, medical practitioners, veterans, businessmen, wives, mothers and others in these processes. Its culturally informed commodification approach means that this book will be relevant to scholars interested in cultural, literary, social, political, medical, economic and commercial history.
The family is the core of human society and the mother, we are told, is the
heart of the family. By virtue of her position, she has the responsibility of
caring in a special way for the physical, mental, moral, and spiritual and
social wellbeing of the family. What then can be more important than to assist
in the work of guarding a mother’s health, by helping her to solve the problems
and anxieties which are preventing her from getting the maximum benefit
from the medical services offered to her during pregnancy?1
Motherhood is a complex issue
duty to public service. In other words, notions of women’s ‘complementary
nature’, feminine moral superiority and an evangelical interest in actively
pursuing the conversion of others – ideas which might be mobilised
to justify the sexual division of labour and an idealised female domesticity – could be subverted by middle-class public women to encourage
the formation and expansion of women’s reforming associations in the
1870 to 1914 period. So, while female involvement in civic life and public
service was in some sense an extension of the feminine nurturing role
Inside the asylums
On 30 January 1857, a single woman entered Carlow asylum and was
diagnosed as suffering from ‘mania’. She had become ill the previous
November and the medical superintendent recorded that there was a
history of insanity in her father’s family. Religion, and specifically the
‘late mission in the town’, was recorded as the exciting cause of illness.
She was discharged in May 1858. Her recovery was accredited to the
‘general moral treatment of the establishment with attention to general
health’.1 She had been prescribed sedatives and a robust
being made ‘according to
agreement’ with the paupers.7
The rest of this chapter will (after a discussion of the meaning of
pauper letters) explore three aspects of the negotiation process:
the nature of the legal, customary, agential and moral space within
which the claims of the sick poor sat; the rhetorical and other strategies employed as they engaged with officials; and the way in which
parochial officers understood the rights of the sick poor in particular.
Negotiating medical welfare71
It will suggest inter alia that, as we began to see in Chapter 1, claims
Accessible knightly masculinities in children’s Arthuriana, 1903–11
as an ‘everyday heroism’ arising in the later nineteenth century, combining, albeit with tensions, civil and military elements.6 If, as Joseph
Kestner contends, the ‘primary if narrow agenda of many adventure
texts [is] to model masculinity and interrogate it’, then British and
American adaptations of Arthurian adventure for boy readers during
the early 1900s sought to simultaneously promote and subtly redefine
chivalric masculinity for a modern age.7 In doing so, they retained the
imaginative framework of the ‘soldier hero’, but focused on the moral
The French human sciences and the crafting of modern subjectivity,
been inflicted by the Revolution had revealed hitherto unknown powers of the mind.
It was, he argued, the reign of malicious customs among the enslaved peoples in particular – causing a ‘moral fever’ – that had led to the outbreak of Revolution.
He believed that women, especially, offered proof that ‘moral affections’ contributed to healing, providing the example of a case of dropsy stemming from puffiness in the legs.
additional examples of the
wonders of India. Indian stories and moral tales meanwhile migrated
overland to Europe through the languages of the Middle East. As they
travelled westwards the themes, plots and characters of the originals
altered to appeal to local beliefs, customs and tastes; in Europe they
were incorporated into song, drama and story, often in Christian or
European disguise. The ethical
In the twenty years after Ireland joined the UN in 1955, one subject dominated its fortunes: Africa. The first detailed study of Ireland's relationship with that continent, this book documents its special place in Irish history. It describes the missionaries, aid workers, diplomats, peacekeepers, and anti-apartheid protesters at the heart of Irish popular understanding of the developing world. It chronicles Africa's influence on Irish foreign policy, from decolonisation and the end of empire, to apartheid and the rise of foreign aid. Adopting a fresh, and strongly comparative approach, this book shows how small and middling powers like Ireland, Canada, the Netherlands and the Nordic states used Africa to shape their position in the international system, and how their influence waned with the rise of the Afro-Asian bloc. O’Sullivan details the link between African decolonisation and Ireland's self-defined post-colonial identity: at the UN, in the Congo, South Africa, Rhodesia, and Biafra – even in remote mission stations in rural Africa. When growing African radicalism made that role difficult to sustain, this book describes how missionaries, NGOs, and anti-apartheid campaigners helped to re-invent the Irish government's position, to become the ‘moral conscience’ of the EC. Offering a fascinating account of small state diplomacy and identity in a vital period for the Cold War, and a unique perspective on African decolonisation, this book provides essential insight for scholars of Irish history, African history, international relations, and the history of NGOs, as well as anyone interested in why Africa holds such an important place in the Irish public imagination.
This book examines the varied and fascinating ways in which the series of non-monarchical regimes of England’s civil wars and interregnum interacted with the unique locality and community of Westminster. Westminster (as opposed to London) was traditionally viewed as the ‘royal’ city – the site of Whitehall Palace and the royal courts of justice, its Abbey reputed to be the ‘house of kings’, and its inhabitants assumed to be instinctive followers of the monarch and the royal court. Westminster emerges in this study as a site of extraordinary ambiguities and juxtapositions. The promoters of vigorous moral reformation and a sustained and often intrusive military presence coexisted uneasily with the area’s distinctive forms of elite sociability and luxury. The state’s foremost godly preachers performed in close proximity to royalist churchmen. More generally, the forces of political, religious and cultural conservatism can be observed on the very doorstep of parliament and non-monarchical regimes. Yet for Westminster as a whole, this was the time when the locality became tied to the state more tightly than ever before, while at key moments the town’s distinctive geography and local government played a significant role in shaping the political crises of the period. Chapters analyse the crisis of 1640-42, the use of Westminster’s iconic buildings and spaces by the non-monarchical regimes, the sustained military occupation of the locality, the problems of political allegiance and local government, the religious divisions and practices of the period, and the problematic revival of fashionable society in a time of political tension.