Andrew Denham, Andrew S. Roe-Crines and Peter Dorey

continued to call for peaceful solutions in Libya, Syria, and a more balanced dialogue with Iran. As a consequence of this focus, he was never regarded as a serious contender for a position at the frontline of British politics. However, through a process of changes to the leadership selection rules following Labour’s return to opposition in 2010, a door was opened by which a contender from the left of the party could be in a competitive position for the leadership. Those changes were precipitated by the Falkirk scandal, and the need for the incumbent leader, Ed Miliband

in Choosing party leaders
Richard Dunphy and Luke March

An important criterion by which any European TNP may be judged is, of course, its ability to formulate both a coherent party programme and agreed party policy at the European level, and to have that programme and policy endorsed by and reflected in the national platforms of its constituent parts. To the extent that the European Left Party fails to do so, it can scarcely be said to have achieved former EL President Lothar Bisky's declared goal of advancing beyond a mere conglomeration of national parties towards a genuine European party

in The European Left Party
David Arter

6 Party system change since 1970 The structure of party competition can persist even when the protagonists involved in its promotion change out of all recognition. (Mair 1997) When playing the role of advocatus diaboli, it could be argued that the notion of ‘party system change’ is not only grammatically ponderous but also conceptually imprecise, operationally problematical and, ultimately, of limited utility in understanding the nature of policy-making in pluralist polities. If this seems harsh, it is none the less the case that, despite the extensive

in Scandinavian politics today
Geoffrey K. Roberts

3 Political parties and electoral politics The role of political parties in electoral politics Elections in democracies are structured by political parties, are contests between parties and their candidates and result in a party or a coalition of parties assuming responsibility for government. In Germany, the novelty of parties possessing constitutional status emphasises this relationship between parties and elections. Their responsibility to ‘participate in the formation of the political will of the people’ – a bland and generalised statement of obligation

in German electoral politics
Cas Mudde

chap1 28/5/02 13.30 Page 1 1 The extreme right party family Studies of political parties have been based on a multiplicity of both scholarly and political theories, and have focused on a variety of internal and external aspects. As is common within the scientific community, complaints have been voiced about the lack of knowledge in particular areas of the field, such as party (as) organisations (Mair 1994), party ideology (Von Beyme 1985), and minor or small parties (Fischer 1980; Müller-Rommel 1991). However, even though a lot of work certainly remains to

in The ideology of the extreme right
Rosie Campbell and Sarah Childs

11 The (feminised) contemporary Conservative Party Rosie Campbell and Sarah Childs Introduction The UK Conservative Party, since 2005, is undoubtedly a more feminised institution. The party saw significant increases in the number of Conservative women MPs returned to Westminster at the 2010 and 2015 general elections. It had established new women’s forums for policy debate among its women members, and participated in inter-­party competition for women’s votes, reflecting the interventions of key women party and parliamentary actors over the last three elections

in Rethinking right-wing women
Tim Bale and Paul Webb

7 The evolving Conservative Party membership Tim Bale and Paul Webb Much of the writing on the so-called modernisation of the Conservative Party since 2005 has focused on life at the top (Hayton, 2015). In as much as the grass roots are mentioned, they tend either to be objects – ‘done to’ rather than doing – or else obstacles – a shapeless or stereotyped mass who have occasionally made life awkward for the Conservative leadership, first, by resisting their efforts to change the party’s procedures and policies and, second, by supposedly clinging to attitudes

in David Cameron and Conservative renewal
continuity, innovation and renewal
Paul Kennedy

5 The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party: continuity, innovation and renewal Paul Kennedy The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español – PSOE) was founded in Madrid in 1879. It was the largest party on the left during the Second Republic (1931–36), and provided the Republic with two prime ministers during the Spanish Civil War, Francisco Largo Caballero (1936–37) and Juan Negrín (1937–39). Brutally repressed by the Franco regime (1939–75), the PSOE almost disappeared as a significant political force within Spain. Nevertheless, under the

in In search of social democracy
Liam Weeks

8 Why are there independents in Ireland? Introduction The core thesis of this study is that independents are not an aberrant, irrational feature of the Irish political system. They have maintained a continuous presence in a stable party democracy because, unlike in other polities, the system is permissive of them. This permissiveness can occur via electoral rules, political norms, the structure of party competition and the attitude of political actors in terms of their willingness to incorporate independents into the political system. These factors all act to

in Independents in Irish party democracy
Abstract only
Liam Weeks

1 Introduction Independents This is a study of mavericks, of the independent politicians who go it alone. They are the metaphorical equivalent of sheep who stray from the flock, who would rather discover fresh pastures than graze on their own. In most political systems, there are very few incentives to take such a deviant path. The few sheep that wander tend to be quickly picked off by the preying wolf that is the party system. In Ireland things are a bit different, however, as the maverick path does not imply political termination. Life outside of the flock can

in Independents in Irish party democracy