. Moreover, this is a denial of the peculiarly Sophistical aspects of the Aristotelian rhetoricism which Lindheim views as important to the reading of Sidney’s New Arcadia and English Renaissanceliterature in general: an emphasis on ‘human will and choice, insisting on the way action is conditioned by circumstances and capable of ambiguous and conflicting interpretations’. 46 I contend that such ideas are more compatible with a Philippist philosophy that also assigns an unusual freedom to the individual human will. Advocates of such a philosophy may also view
rim is carved in the form of towers and
35 Wells-Cole, Art and Decoration, pp. 269–70.
36 Sara L. French, ‘Replacing gender in Elizabethan gardens’, in Mapping Gendered
Routes and Spaces in the Early Modern World, edited by Merry Wiesner-Hanks
(Burlington: Ashgate Press, 2015), p. 171.
Hardwick Hall: building a woman’s house
37 Henderson, Tudor House and Garden, pp. 86–7 and 206–7.
38 Wells-Cole, Art and Decoration, pp. 270–3.
39 Patricia Fumerton, Cultural Aesthetics: RenaissanceLiterature and the Practice of Social
and D. Bruster (eds), In the Company of
Shakespeare: Essays on English RenaissanceLiterature in
Honor of G. Blakemore Evans (Madison, NJ;
London: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; Associated
University Press, 2002), pp. 161–76; P. Cheney,
‘Poetry in Shakespeare’s Plays’, in P. Cheney
Augmentis , in The Philosophical Works of Francis Bacon (Routledge Revivals), ed. John M. Robertson (Oxford: Routledge, 1905; repr. 2011), p. 429. See also Kenneth Gross, Spenserian Poetics: Idolatry, Iconoclasm, and Magic (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985), pp. 23–4 and A. Bartlett Giamatti, Exile and Change in RenaissanceLiterature (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984), p. 150.
10 For Shakespeare’s interest in tidal metaphors and phenomena see Dan Brayton, Shakespeare’s Ocean: An Ecocritical Exploration (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press
Juan Luis Vives, The Passions of the Soul:
The Third Book of De Anima et Vita , trans. Carlos G. Norena,
Studies in RenaissanceLiterature, Vol. 4 (Lewiston, NY: Edwin
Mellen, 1990 ), pp. 57–9.
Ibid ., p. 59.
121 ‘Thomas Lever’, Ben Lowe in ODNB .
122 Patrick Collinson, ‘History’, in A Companion to English RenaissanceLiterature and Culture , ed. Michael Hattaway (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 58–70.
123 Patrick Collinson, ‘John Foxe as Historian’, TAMO Essays (accessed 6 February 2015).
124 Adam Fox, Oral and Literate Culture in England, 1500–1700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 212–258; Daniel Woolf, The Social Circulation of the Past: English Historical Culture
Christian Platonic hierarchy shapes Spenser’s epic: a hierarchic family triad, three stages of fall and of recovery. Spenser radically revises this allegory, blaming man, whom woman lovingly seeks to cure. Books 3-5 show Britomart’s chaste power defeating all males, freeing woman from mastery and self-induced suffering. The intellective allegory of books 1 and 2 reform higher reason, then lower reason, each in tripartite form: a triadic family, triple temptings, three-phase training of the spiritual and then natural bodies, ending with a triadic Eden. The passional allegory of books 3 and 4 is again transcendent, then immanent. Britomart brings female ascendancy by chaste skill with arms and providential goals. She unfolds in three heroic Graces (Florimell, Belphoebe, Amoret). In these passional books the male counterparts (Artegall, Marinell, Timias, Scudamour) are paralyzed; virtuous reunion comes by female prowess and endurance, aided by mothers and female deities. A female theology rests on virginity and marriage, immaculate conception, Trinitarian identity, epiphanic unveilings, female endurance of a Passion. The sensate allegory of books 5 and 6 subject even Gloriana/Mercilla and Arthur to confusing materialism. Does the ontological ‘dilation’ of books 1-6 (narrowing images of Duessa, Timias, and satyrs-salvages) show despondency about Irish terrors, or prepare for reversal in books 7-12?
Renaissanceliterature’, The Sixteenth Century
Journal 21(1) (1990), p. 98.
11 There is an extensive literature on the signiﬁcance of lineage: Heal and Holmes, The
Gentry in England and Wales, pp. 27–30; M. James, Family, Lineage, and Civil Society
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974), pp. 108–11; M. James, Society, Politics and Culture
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), pp. 308–415; R. Cust, ‘Honour, rhetoric and political culture: the Earl of Huntingdon and his enemies’, in S.D. Amussen
and M.A. Kishlansky (eds), Political Culture and Cultural Politics in Early
early modern letters
consisted of an exordium (introduction), propositio (declaration of the substance of the
letter), confirmatio (amplification), confutatio (countering of objections) and a peroratio
(conclusion). For more on this structure, see J. Gibson, ‘Letters’, in M. Hattaway (ed.),
A Companion to English RenaissanceLiterature and Culture (Oxford, 2000), pp. 615–19;
Daybell, Women Letter-Writers, pp. 240–3.
Zürich, 1547), sigs A2r–4r; Mason, ‘Scotching the Brut’, 68–70.
47 Christopher Highley, ‘ “The lost British lamb”: English Catholic exiles and the problem of Britain’ in David J. Baker and Willy Maley (eds), British Identities and English
RenaissanceLiterature (Cambridge, 2002), 45–8.
48 Somerset, Epistle, sig. C1r.
49 Ibid., sigs B1v, B3v; Cameron, Warrender Papers, 26 (Merriman, Rough Wooings, 275);
CSP Scotland, 177.
50 TA, IX, 110.
51 Lamb, Ane Resonyng, 65, 71–3.
52 Wedderburn, Complaynt, 83–4.
53 Donaldson, All the Queen’s Men, 20–1; Seymour, Epistle