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The failure of history
Neil Macmaster

excellent and balanced over-views see John L. Esposito, The Islamic Threat. Myth or Reality? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995 edn); Fred Halliday, Islam and the Myth of Confrontation. Religion and Politics in the Middle East (London: I. B. Tauris, 1995), and Halliday, Two Hours that Shook the World. September 11, 2001: Causes and Consequences (London: Saqi Books, 2002). 2 Courrière, La Guerre d’Algérie, Vol. 2, 135. 3 On the origins of this Islamophobic current in contemporary France see Neil MacMaster, ‘Islamophobia in France and the “Algerian Problem”’, in Emran

in Burning the veil
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A new perspective unfolds
Charlotte Wagnsson

’; Council of the European Union, ‘Declaration by the Heads of State or Government of the EU and the President of the Commission: Follow-up to the September 11 attacks and the fight against terrorism’, 19 October 2001; Prodi, R., ‘Address to Asian Ambassadors meeting’, Brussels, 24 September 2001, ‘Speech to the European Trade Union Confederation’, Brussels, 11 October 2001

in Security in a greater Europe
François Burgat

volume whose activist title, The New Islamic Society , was utterly at odds with the register of my own work. More intriguing still, I then allegedly shared my conviction that, after September 11, the citizens of the United States “converted to Islam by the thousands.” The bizarre interview was presented as having been translated from the original French by one Yasmina Salah. She in turn had supposedly copied it from issue 105 of a magazine called La Vérité (“ The Truth ”). In that magazine, which was purported to have published over 105

in Understanding Political Islam
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Philip Hammond

, backward people who bear little culpability for the events of September 11?’ In the Guardian, Jonathan Steele suggested that the target had been widened to include the Taliban because coalition leaders had realised that ‘finding Bin Laden might prove impossible’ (11 October) and so that ‘any hit on the dartboard [could] be trumpeted as proof we’ve scored’ (6 October). In the Times, columnist Mick

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
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Ashley Lavelle

Hayden viz the Kennedys): the propensity to be attracted to individuals, failing to see that institutions, states, and systems both outlast these people and also substantially curtail their influence. Hitchens revealed himself along the way to be a politically gullible character easily seduced by power. In this sense, there was little radical about Hitchens, either pre- or post-September 11: indeed his former friend and colleague at the Nation Alexander Cockburn, who grew tired of fielding telephone calls from people asking where Hitchens went wrong, had ‘never thought

in The politics of betrayal
The dynamics of multilateralism in Eurasia
Sean Kay

their own state authority in Chechnya and Xinjiang. In early 2002, the SCO issued a joint statement declaring that regional and sub-regional structures were best suited to fighting terrorism, and implied that the post-September 11 environment had provided a rationale to institutionalise further the SCO’s antiterrorism capabilities. Yet, for medium and smaller regional powers, the increased American presence in Central Eurasia might make the SCO less attractive – particularly for Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Conclusion: geopolitics, multilateralism and twenty

in Limiting institutions?
Steven Kettell

, both 23 March 2004. 9/11 Commission Report, paras 6.4–6.5. G. Arney, ‘US “planned attack on Taleban”’, BBC News, 18 September 2001; J. Steele, E. MacAskill, R. Norton-Taylor and E. Harriman, ‘Threat of US strikes passed to Taliban weeks before NY attack’, Guardian, 22 September 2001; D. Cave, ‘The conspiracy theory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002,, accessed 9 November 2010. D. Cave, ‘The conspiracy theory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, com, accessed 9 November 2010. J-C. Brisard and D. Corn, ‘Debating September 11’, The

in New Labour and the new world order
Jenny Edkins

tongues, and ‘set aside’ all we ‘know or believe about nations, wars, leaders, the governed and ungovernable’, as Toni Morrison does when she addresses the dead of September 11: ‘those children of ancestors born in every continent on the planet: Asia, Europe, Africa, the Americas …; born of ancestors who wore kilts, obis, saris, geles, wide straw hats, yarmulkes, goatskin, wooden shoes, feathers and cloths to cover their hair’.42 The discipline of international relations brings to life only those it can stomach. I’m sure I’m not the only one to be troubled by this, but

in Change and the politics of certainty
Open Access (free)
Northern Irish fiction after the Troubles
Neal Alexander

. 61. Ibid., p. 318. Paul Ricoeur, ‘Memory and Forgetting’, in Richard Kearney and Mark Dooley (eds), Questioning Ethics: Contemporary Debates in Philosophy (London; New York: Routledge, 1999), pp. 10–11. 9780719075636_4_016.qxd 282 16/2/09 9:29 AM Page 282 Fiction and autobiography 15 Ibid., p. 11. 16 Slavoj figek, Welcome to the Desert of the Real!: Five Essays on September 11 and Related Dates (London; New York: Verso, 2002), p. 22. 17 Bernard MacLaverty, The Anatomy School (London: Jonathan Cape, 2001), p. 134. 18 David Park, The Big Snow (London

in Irish literature since 1990
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War without limits
Adam Page

Center’, p. 30. 24 Graham, Cities Under Siege, p. xxi. 25 Ibid., pp. xvi–xvii. 26 Ibid., p. 73. 27 Gregory, ‘The Everywhere War’, p. 239. 28 For a case study of the fortification of London since the 1990s, see Jon Coaffee, ‘Rings of Steel, Rings of Concrete and Rings of Confidence: Designing out Terrorism in Central London pre and post September 11th’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28:1 (2004), pp. 201–211. 29 Thompson, Zero Option, p. 23. 30 Orwell, ‘You and the Atom Bomb’. 31 Josephine Herbst, quoted in Piette, Literary Cold War, p. 212.

in Architectures of survival