excellent and balanced over-views see John L.
Esposito, The Islamic Threat. Myth or Reality? (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1995 edn); Fred Halliday, Islam and the Myth of Confrontation.
Religion and Politics in the Middle East (London: I. B. Tauris, 1995), and
Halliday, Two Hours that Shook the World. September11, 2001: Causes
and Consequences (London: Saqi Books, 2002).
2 Courrière, La Guerre d’Algérie, Vol. 2, 135.
3 On the origins of this Islamophobic current in contemporary France see
Neil MacMaster, ‘Islamophobia in France and the “Algerian Problem”’,
’; Council of the European Union,
‘Declaration by the Heads of State or Government of the EU and
the President of the Commission: Follow-up to the September11
attacks and the fight against terrorism’, 19 October 2001;
Prodi, R., ‘Address to Asian Ambassadors meeting’,
Brussels, 24 September 2001, ‘Speech to the European Trade
Union Confederation’, Brussels, 11 October 2001
volume whose activist title, The New Islamic Society , was utterly at odds with the register of my own work. More intriguing still, I then allegedly shared my conviction that, after September11, the citizens of the United States “converted to Islam by the thousands.” The bizarre interview was presented as having been translated from the original French by one Yasmina Salah. She in turn had supposedly copied it from issue 105 of a magazine called La Vérité (“ The Truth ”).
In that magazine, which was purported to have published over 105
backward people who bear little culpability for the events of September11?’ In the Guardian, Jonathan Steele suggested that the
target had been widened to include the Taliban because coalition leaders
had realised that ‘finding Bin Laden might prove impossible’
(11 October) and so that ‘any hit on the dartboard [could] be
trumpeted as proof we’ve scored’ (6 October). In the
Times, columnist Mick
viz the Kennedys): the propensity to be attracted to individuals, failing to see
that institutions, states, and systems both outlast these people and also substantially curtail their influence. Hitchens revealed himself along the way to be a
politically gullible character easily seduced by power. In this sense, there was
little radical about Hitchens, either pre- or post-September11: indeed his
former friend and colleague at the Nation Alexander Cockburn, who grew
tired of fielding telephone calls from people asking where Hitchens went
wrong, had ‘never thought
their own state
authority in Chechnya and Xinjiang. In early 2002, the SCO issued a joint
statement declaring that regional and sub-regional structures were best
suited to fighting terrorism, and implied that the post-September11 environment had provided a rationale to institutionalise further the SCO’s antiterrorism capabilities. Yet, for medium and smaller regional powers, the
increased American presence in Central Eurasia might make the SCO less
attractive – particularly for Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.
Conclusion: geopolitics, multilateralism and twenty
both 23 March 2004.
9/11 Commission Report, paras 6.4–6.5.
G. Arney, ‘US “planned attack on Taleban”’, BBC News, 18 September 2001; J.
Steele, E. MacAskill, R. Norton-Taylor and E. Harriman, ‘Threat of US strikes passed
to Taliban weeks before NY attack’, Guardian, 22 September 2001; D. Cave, ‘The
conspiracy theory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, http://dir.salon.com, accessed
9 November 2010.
D. Cave, ‘The conspiracy theory that wouldn’t die’, 15 August 2002, http://dir.salon.
com, accessed 9 November 2010.
J-C. Brisard and D. Corn, ‘Debating September11’, The
tongues, and ‘set aside’
all we ‘know or believe about nations, wars, leaders, the governed and
ungovernable’, as Toni Morrison does when she addresses the dead
of September11: ‘those children of ancestors born in every continent
on the planet: Asia, Europe, Africa, the Americas …; born of ancestors who wore kilts, obis, saris, geles, wide straw hats, yarmulkes,
goatskin, wooden shoes, feathers and cloths to cover their hair’.42
The discipline of international relations brings to life only those it can
stomach. I’m sure I’m not the only one to be troubled by this, but
Ibid., p. 318.
Paul Ricoeur, ‘Memory and Forgetting’, in Richard Kearney and Mark
Dooley (eds), Questioning Ethics: Contemporary Debates in Philosophy
(London; New York: Routledge, 1999), pp. 10–11.
Fiction and autobiography
15 Ibid., p. 11.
16 Slavoj figek, Welcome to the Desert of the Real!: Five Essays on
September11 and Related Dates (London; New York: Verso, 2002),
17 Bernard MacLaverty, The Anatomy School (London: Jonathan Cape,
2001), p. 134.
18 David Park, The Big Snow (London
Center’, p. 30.
24 Graham, Cities Under Siege, p. xxi.
25 Ibid., pp. xvi–xvii.
26 Ibid., p. 73.
27 Gregory, ‘The Everywhere War’, p. 239.
28 For a case study of the fortification of London since the 1990s, see Jon
Coaffee, ‘Rings of Steel, Rings of Concrete and Rings of Confidence:
Designing out Terrorism in Central London pre and post September11th’,
International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28:1 (2004), pp.
29 Thompson, Zero Option, p. 23.
30 Orwell, ‘You and the Atom Bomb’.
31 Josephine Herbst, quoted in Piette, Literary Cold War, p. 212.