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The politics of Britain’s small wars since 1945
Author: Aaron Edwards

Britain is often revered for its extensive experience of waging ‘small wars’. Its long imperial history is littered with high profile counter-insurgency campaigns, thus marking it out as the world's most seasoned practitioners of this type of warfare. Britain's ‘small wars’ ranged from fighting Communist insurgents in the bamboo-laden Malayan jungle, marauding Mau Mau gangs in Kenyan game reserves, Irish republican terrorists in the back alleys and rural hamlets of Northern Ireland, and Taliban fighters in Afghanistan's Helmand province. This is the first book to detail the tactical and operational dynamics of Britain's small wars, arguing that the military's use of force was more heavily constrained by wider strategic and political considerations than previously admitted. Outlining the civil-military strategy followed by the British in Palestine, Malaya, Kenya, Cyprus, Aden, Northern Ireland, Iraq and Afghanistan, Defending the Realm argues that Britain's small wars have been shaped by a relative decline in British power, amidst dramatic fluctuations in the international system, just as much as the actions of military commanders and civilian officials ‘on the spot’ or those formulating government policy in London. Written from a theoretically-informed perspective, grounded in rich archival sources, oral testimonies and a reappraisal of the literature on counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism, Defending the Realm is the definitive account of the politics of Britain's small wars. It will be of interest to political scientists and historians, as well as scholars, students, soldiers and politicians who wish to gain a more critically informed perspective of the political trappings of war.

In pursuit of the good state
Author: Julia Gallagher

Africa was a key focus of Britain's foreign policy under Tony Blair. Military intervention in Sierra Leone, increases in aid and debt relief, and grand initiatives such as the Commission for Africa established the continent as a place in which Britain could ‘do good’. This book critically explores Britain's fascination with Africa. It argues that, under New Labour, Africa represented an area of policy which appeared to transcend politics. Gradually, it came to embody an ideal state activity around which politicians, officials and the wider public could coalesce, leaving behind more contentious domestic and international issues. Building on the story of Britain and Africa under Blair, the book draws wider conclusions about the role of ‘good’ and idealism in foreign policy. In particular, it discusses how international relations provide opportunities to create and pursue ideals, and why they are essential for the wellbeing of political communities. The book argues that state actors project the idea of ‘good’ onto idealised, distant objects, in order to restore a sense of the ‘good state’.

Case studies from Denmark and England

The inhabitants of most OECD countries tend to regard state intervention in the everyday lives of individual citizens and in society at large with certain scepticism. Health promotion is really not about curing diseases or even about preventing diseases. The overall aim of this book is to provide a critical understanding of current health promotion ideas and practices unfolding in liberal democracies. It identifies and discusses the merits and the limitations of the most influential political science and sociological analyses seeking to critically address contemporary politics of health. Foucault's analytics of power and government are discussed. The book then seeks to provide a solid understanding of the wider political context of health promotion in England and Denmark, examining obesity control in these regions. It also analyses how and why psychiatric patients, particularly those with chronic mental illness in England and Denmark, are urged to take charge of their mental illness with reference to the notion of rehabilitation. Key shifts in predominant forms of political rationalities and expert knowledge on how best to treat psychiatric patients are also analysed. Finally, the book examines how expert knowledge and political rationalities informed political interventions (policies, programmes, and technologies) in an attempt to promote rehabilitation along with increased implementation of community- based treatment. It summarizes the analytical findings regarding the governing of citizens through lifestyle and rehabilitation respectively. Further research is required on the politics of health promotion.

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The Hungarian writings
Editor: Gareth Dale

When Karl Polanyi, in a letter of 1934, gave an account of 'the inner development' of his thought, he divided it into two periods. The first was his early life in Hungary, until 1919, the second was the fifteen years that followed, in Viennese exile. This book begins with a survey of Karl Polanyi's early life, and a summary overview of his engagement in emigre politics during his spells in Austria, Britain and North America. He became a central figure in its radical counter-culture, the members of which were to exert an influence upon twentieth-century thought. Polanyi's practical activities initially focused upon the Galilei Circle, a freemason-funded organisation of students and young intellectuals. The first part of the book talks about how ritual and superstition encompassed his everyday life. It discusses Mach's examination of the ideas concerning the so-called 'bodily' and 'spiritual' worlds; explaining why they are as they are, and elaborating useful concepts and rules. The next part explains history: the capitalist system will turn socialism into a state religion, just as the Roman Empire took over Christianity. Karl Kautsky's latest work presents a poignant picture of the disorderly retreat of Marxist socialism. The book looks at the Crossman intervention that is expected to weaken Winston Churchill's intellectual influence upon British foreign policy, and thereby hopefully open the way towards a better understanding, around the world, of the new, socialist Britain. Representative samples of his correspondence from these three periods are included in the final part of this book.

The 1980s were the heyday of the Thatcher counter-revolution, with mass deindustrialisation destroying Britain's manufacturing base. It was a period of significant setbacks for left politics, most notably the crushing of the miners' strike, Tony Benn's defeat in the Labour deputy leadership contest, and the abolition of the left-controlled Greater London Council. The surcharging and disqualification of councillors who resisted central government rate-capping, Labour's loss of the 1983 and 1987 general elections and the notorious 1983 Bermondsey by-election were also a part of the events during this period. This book resists the view that Labour's political and economic thought was moribund during the 1980s. It shows that Labour embraced new views on the role of the state and state intervention in the economy. The idea of a national investment bank, continental social democracy, and the 'Brexit' referendum of 2016 are discussed. Nostalgia was built into the New Labour's psyche, making it seem adrift from a changing society. Neil Kinnock replaced Michael Foot as leader in 1983 after Labour's defeat in that year's general election, and formed a party that brought changes that coincided with those made by Mikhail Gorbachev. Two major struggles between the Militant-led, Labour-run Liverpool City Council and Margaret Thatcher's Conservative Government damaged the reputation of the Labour Party, harmed its fortunes in the 1987 general election. The Race Today Collective was the most influential group of black radicals in the UK, 'the centre, in England, of black liberation'.

The new critics of intervention
Philip Cunliffe

Chapter 2 Through the looking-glass: the new critics of intervention What does it mean to be critical of intervention? After all, any reasonable person would admit that the intervention in Iraq, for example, was a disaster. Even the late unabashedly neo-­conservative US senator John McCain, notorious for his unstinting support for the invasion of Iraq and the global war on terror, conceded on the eve of his death that Iraq was ‘a mistake’.1 Both President Obama and President Trump mounted electoral campaigns that criticised the failures and excesses of military

in Cosmopolitan dystopia
Dean J. White

Similarly the Conservative Party has, since 1997 at least, suggested that if another Rwandastyle crisis was to happen then Britain should intervene. William Hague, at the time Shadow Foreign Secretary, made this point explicitly in a 2009 speech entitled ‘The Future of British Foreign Policy’, saying, ‘We are all agreed we would try to intervene if another Rwanda was predicted’.5 The crisis is also frequently recalled in the House of Commons and since 1994 every time MPs debate intervention, Rwanda is inevitably drawn upon as an analogy. For example, in 2004 John Maples

in The ignorant bystander?
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Dean J. White

response to the events in Rwanda from a perspective that to date has been largely ignored by academia – the response of the United Kingdom (the UK). It sets out to address Tony Blair’s claims about this specific crisis: did the UK know, did it fail to act, was it responsible? Secondly, more than being just about Rwanda, this book aims to explore British humanitarian intervention more generally. Using Rwanda as a case study, the book explores the various influences and actors that impact on foreign policy making, particularly related to the decision to intervene in

in The ignorant bystander?
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Philip Hammond

There were a number of overlapping UN and US interventions in Somalia in the early 1990s. The United Nations Mission to Somalia (UNOSOM) began in April 1992 and was succeeded by UNOSOM II, which operated from March 1993 until March 1995. A US airlift of food aid, Operation Provide Relief, was launched in August 1992, and Operation Restore Hope, a UN-authorised military

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
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Peter Triantafillou and Naja Vucina

133 Conclusion In the preceding chapters, we have tried to show that contemporary health politics in England and Denmark has undergone a substantial mutation since the 1980s. Based on our analysis of obesity control and mental recovery, we found that health promotion strategies and interventions have supplemented and partially recast earlier curative and preventive approaches in both England and Denmark. On the one hand, it is clear that curative approaches, which focus on the identification, treatment, and elimination of clinically specified illness, and

in The politics of health promotion