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made the Holocaust thinkable’ (Modernity and the Holocaust: 13, emphasis in original). Commentators on, and critics of Bauman’s thesis have missed a crucial ambiguity in this formulation. I shall remark on it later when I come to assess Bauman’s claims with regard to the Holocaust and modernity. The initial ‘solution’, the forced mass emigration of Jews, had been designed with the same meticulous planning and expert knowledge that was then transferred to the Final Solution; both, for Bauman, were text-book cases of Weber’s analysis of bureaucratic functioning and its

in Bauman and contemporary sociology
The 1848-ers overseas

a consequence of famine, emigration and the defeat of the uprising. He believed that mass emigration to the United States had broken the spirit of the country because ‘Ireland without the Irish – the Irish out of Ireland – neither of these can be our country’.171 The popularity of the convicted leaders of 1848 endured during their exile in Van Diemen’s Land, and so when MacManus, Meagher and Mitchel escaped to the United States, they were each given a hero’s welcome.172 However, as Mitchel approached New York he wrote, ‘I am going to be a demigod for two or three

in Repeal and revolution

. 13 Rutenburg, Popolo e movimenti popolari , pp. 315–16 and 335–6, claims that the repression was brutal and that mass emigration ensued but he produces little evidence to back his claims. Only forty-four Ciompi were sentenced to exile in September 1378 following the fall of the Ciompi government. Furthermore, days later, any Ciompi who had left the

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence

, tempered as they were by widespread knowledge of the more mundane and often precarious fates of most Irish emigrants, were the least of it, however. Religious commentators had begun offering a more unambiguously glorious narrative some time earlier. Broadly speaking, this narrative involved the interpretation of mass emigration from Ireland as the fulfilment of a specific, divine ‘destiny’, which had been specially accorded to the Irish ‘race’. God had chosen the Irish to be, in a repeated phrase, a ‘martyr nation’12 whose millions of exiled children were to form the

in Population, providence and empire
Abstract only

1.2 ‘John Anderson my Jo’, James Johnson, The Scots Musical Museum , vol. 3 [1790], p. 269. The ballad played a more everyday role in a shared popular culture that spread rapidly over the British Empire with the onset of mass emigration. In his account of the voyage to Australia aboard an

in Sounds of liberty