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Membership, privilege, and place

dialogic processes, deliberating within the terms of the community’s political ethos.18 However, citizenship will only work on the basis of a common nationality. Without it, there will be reluctance to accept social duties, little motivation for redistributive policies, and 24 SUPRANATIONAL CITIZENSHIP the dispositions needed for the effective functioning of free and democratic political institutions (a willingness to moderate demands and to compromise, to refrain from pressing one’s gains or exploiting offices to one’s advantage) will be absent.19 By ‘nationality

in Supranational Citizenship

British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo.V., c.17), designed to define subjecthood as the signifier of imperial membership, faltered in the face of continued colonial nationalism, particularly the dominions’ measures to define their own citizenship through naturalization and immigration legislation. 16 Though motivated by its wish to have a Canadian

in Imperial citizenship
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fundamental shift is EU enlargement. In 2004, citizens of the ten new EU member countries were given immediate rights to live and work in Ireland, as well as the UK and Sweden. The impact of this decision is obvious in Table 2.2 where, in the three-year period from 2006 to 2008, close to 190,000 people with EU-12 nationality immigrated to Ireland. This movement of people from the EU-10 to Ireland was a response to broader changes at EU level, though the final decision around implementation at local level was made by the Irish state. The EU is also important for

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century

describes as a multi-ethnic state. This idea is reflected in the concept Zhonghua minzu (”/L™) that is used to express a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions. It is taken to be inclusive of all ethnic groups in China and is similar in scope to the assertions of a conscious national identity developed in several European states in the nineteenth century. This suggests that, whatever else it may be, what we mean by ‘national’ identity involves some sense of political community, however tenuous. A political community in turn implies at least some common

in Understanding Chinese politics
London River and Des hommes et des dieux

, French is a globalised and mutually secondary lingua franca. In considering London River’s portrayal of language as disconnected from nation(ality), I coin the expression ‘unanchored language’. The unanchored language is one which functions separately from its country of origin, and is thus removed from, or runs parallel to, the purview of traditional language politics. It reflects Sudesh Mishra’s concept of ‘situational laterality’ (2006: 100), described by Maty Ba Saer and Will Higbee as: An attempt to move away from an exclusive focus on the host–home binary in

in Decentring France
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-emphasised. Decolonisation was as incomplete in its processes as colonisation. Victoria College and the other ‘English’ schools sponsored by the British Council were taken over by the Egyptian state and the contracts of British staff terminated; however, Samir Rafaat noted that the repatriation of the British was disorienting for students of diverse nationalities accustomed to a British type of education. The

in Egypt
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the second half of the 1980s and in the 1990s was foregrounded by the fact that, as a result of the 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act and 1981 British Nationality Act, Hong Kong’s British nationals – in the late 1980s numbering around 3.5 million out of the colony’s 6 million people – had no automatic right of abode in the UK. 39 As Dick Wilson, former editor of the FEER , noted in 1990, Hong

in Hong Kong and British culture, 1945–97

Whilst the arrival of people from the constituent parts of the British Isles was clearly a considerable feature of life across medieval and early modern England, it was only part of the wider process of migration into England across this period. Of the 5,106 aliens taxed in 1440 whose nationalities can be readily identified, some 38 per cent (1,936) came from elsewhere within the British Isles and the Channel Islands. However, this leaves almost two thirds of immigrants taxed in 1440 originating from further afield – and some considerably further. The

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Predictable arrivals

eventually settled on in the 1951 Refugee Convention defined a refugee as a person who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear is unwilling to return to it.25

in (B)ordering Britain

’s 2000 novel What Are You Like? does not appear to be concerned with nation or nationality at all. In a series of loosely connected chapters a number of characters ponder the question ‘what they are like’, which in the Irish idiom is a phrase with several double meanings, expressing the anxious or proud ‘how do I look’ and the admonishing ‘what a mess you are’ as well as the more conventional meaning. For Maria, who is the closest to a main character, this question takes on particular significance when she finds a picture of what she first believes to be herself in her

in Irish literature since 1990