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identity in the second half of the nineteenth and early years of the twentieth centuries. Caledonian Societies emerged throughout southern Africa. The totemic days of the Scottish calendar were widely celebrated. Highland games were instituted as major sporting and cultural events, matching their counterparts in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. 2 These

in The Scots in South Africa
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, as did other primary schools not controlled by the State, but secondary schools evolved only slowly into their present form in the early years of the twentieth century. Vocational schools were not set up until 1930, but technical training was given in many National Schools. Only a tiny minority of the population attended university, as not all of the professions demanded a university degree, and primary teachertraining colleges were set up only in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. In 1911 male and female literacy rates in Ireland were comparatively

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
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gratification, but cricket – at county level and the grassroots – had stood still. Only in 2003 with the introduction of Twenty20 cricket did the authorities make a genuine play for a new kind of audience. The fact that the England cricket team was generally quite poor in the 1970s and 1980s also had a knock-on effect. Cricket-playing youngsters had few role-models to be inspired by. But despite its mounting problems, local cricket has renewed itself in numerous ways in the last decades of the twentieth century. Multiculturalism: the enriching of the local game A group which

in Cricket and community in England
Open Access (free)

portrayed as British or ‘international’. There is a sense in which it is seen as old-fashioned and as part of the past. Throughout the twentieth century, the IODE did manifestly age. As the grey hairs multiplied there has been a concerted effort to remain as innovative and ‘up to date’ as the IODE was when it started out with the marking of graves in 1900. As has happened with other women’s organizations

in Female imperialism and national identity
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can imagine that the system that prevailed to deal with ”problem” children in the first half of the twentieth century inflicted a significant degree of psychological violence on them, although the effect on children of social policy was scarcely, if ever, questioned. The plight of children in state care – either in institutions or foster homes – suggests a more general attitude of indifference towards children and childhood that was also reflected in official attitudes toward and treatment of physical and sexual violence against children. ISPCC case files

in Precarious childhood in post-independence Ireland
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did not recognise them as resulting from stress, even when they appeared to have no other apparent cause. I have argued in this book that throughout the twentieth century, people often privileged physical symptoms and explanations over the psychological, or what they believed to be a mental health problem. They used such physical ailments, which were often related to the digestive system, as proxies for their stress, sometimes knowingly, but often unconsciously. While physical symptoms were obviously real, and in James’ case were indeed

in Feeling the strain
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never been diluted from the time he had first arrived’. 21 An Irish accent therefore remained a consistent identifier of Irishness in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. While most commentary in the sources consulted emphasises a generic Irish brogue, the accents of migrants from Ireland were also occasionally connected to particular counties or regions of origin. Again, according to Mrs Godley in

in Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840
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imperialism was thereby an insignificant element in British domestic social history in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The idea that Empire was unimportant to the public has arisen from an excessive concentration on the effects of Britain on the Empire. Imperial history and the imperial idea have been examined almost entirely in a centrifugal manner, as the radiation of influences from

in Propaganda and Empire
Patient work in colonial mental hospitals in South Asia, c. 1818–1948

5 ‘Useful both to the patients as well as to the State’: Patient work in colonial mental hospitals in South Asia, c. 1818–1948 Waltraud Ernst This chapter focuses on the organisation of patient work in the mental institutions established by the British for both Europeans and Indians in South Asia. It explores the changing and plural meanings of work in relation to prevalent medical ideas and practices in different institutional settings in British-held territories from the early nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth centuries. Different aspects of work will

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015

at the drop of a hat. Known suburbia This book aims to reveal previously hidden aspects of life in London’s interwar suburbia that show it to be surprisingly varied and, at times, exciting. This contradicts the received view of the period, an idea of suburbia that was pre-­eminent throughout the twentieth century. Where does this restricted understanding of interwar suburban life come from? Why was this type of life thought to be so boring, so static, with its mobility dominated by the train timetable? The answer partly lies from within the period itself, in the

in The experience of suburban modernity