identity in the second half of the nineteenth and early years of the
twentiethcenturies. Caledonian Societies emerged throughout southern
Africa. The totemic days of the Scottish calendar were widely
celebrated. Highland games were instituted as major sporting and
cultural events, matching their counterparts in the United States,
Canada, Australia and New Zealand. 2
, as did other
primary schools not controlled by the State, but secondary schools
evolved only slowly into their present form in the early years of the
twentiethcentury. Vocational schools were not set up until 1930,
but technical training was given in many National Schools. Only a
tiny minority of the population attended university, as not all of the
professions demanded a university degree, and primary teachertraining colleges were set up only in the last two decades of the
In 1911 male and female literacy rates in Ireland were comparatively
gratification, but cricket – at county level and the grassroots – had stood still.
Only in 2003 with the introduction of Twenty20 cricket did the authorities make
a genuine play for a new kind of audience. The fact that the England cricket team
was generally quite poor in the 1970s and 1980s also had a knock-on effect.
Cricket-playing youngsters had few role-models to be inspired by.
But despite its mounting problems, local cricket has renewed itself in
numerous ways in the last decades of the twentiethcentury.
Multiculturalism: the enriching of the local game
A group which
portrayed as British or ‘international’. There is a sense in
which it is seen as old-fashioned and as part of the past. Throughout
the twentiethcentury, the IODE did manifestly age. As the grey hairs
multiplied there has been a concerted effort to remain as innovative and
‘up to date’ as the IODE was when it started out with the
marking of graves in 1900. As has happened with other women’s
can imagine that the system that prevailed to deal with ”problem” children
in the first half of the twentiethcentury inflicted a significant degree of
psychological violence on them, although the effect on children of social
policy was scarcely, if ever, questioned. The plight of children in state care
– either in institutions or foster homes – suggests a more general attitude
of indifference towards children and childhood that was also reflected in
official attitudes toward and treatment of physical and sexual violence
against children. ISPCC case files
did not recognise them as resulting from stress, even when they appeared to have no other apparent cause.
I have argued in this book that throughout the twentiethcentury, people often privileged physical symptoms and explanations over the psychological, or what they believed to be a mental health problem. They used such physical ailments, which were often related to the digestive system, as proxies for their stress, sometimes knowingly, but often unconsciously. While physical symptoms were obviously real, and in James’ case were indeed
never been diluted from the time he had first arrived’. 21 An Irish accent
therefore remained a consistent identifier of Irishness in the
nineteenth and twentiethcenturies.
While most commentary in the sources consulted emphasises a
generic Irish brogue, the accents of migrants from Ireland were also
occasionally connected to particular counties or regions of origin.
Again, according to Mrs Godley in
imperialism was thereby an insignificant element in British
domestic social history in the late nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies.
The idea that Empire was unimportant to the public has arisen from an
excessive concentration on the effects of Britain on the Empire.
Imperial history and the imperial idea have been examined almost
entirely in a centrifugal manner, as the radiation of influences from
Patient work in colonial mental hospitals in South Asia, c. 1818–1948
‘Useful both to the patients
as well as to the State’:
Patient work in colonial mental
hospitals in South Asia, c. 1818–1948
This chapter focuses on the organisation of patient work in the mental institutions established by the British for both Europeans and Indians in South Asia.
It explores the changing and plural meanings of work in relation to prevalent
medical ideas and practices in different institutional settings in British-held
territories from the early nineteenth to the middle of the twentiethcenturies.
Different aspects of work will
at the drop of a hat.
This book aims to reveal previously hidden aspects of life in London’s
interwar suburbia that show it to be surprisingly varied and, at times, exciting. This contradicts the received view of the period, an idea of suburbia
that was pre-eminent throughout the twentiethcentury. Where does this
restricted understanding of interwar suburban life come from? Why was
this type of life thought to be so boring, so static, with its mobility dominated by the train timetable?
The answer partly lies from within the period itself, in the