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propagated by promoters of Catholic religious life for women, which lauded the nun’s separation from the world as a good in itself. Scholars of women religious, whether writing on medieval nuns or modern sisters, have identified how the theoretical boundaries were permeated or transgressed in different times and places. 11 Over the six chapters to this point we have already seen how these boundaries were assailed by Catholic women religious ‘becoming modern’ from the middle of the twentieth century, beginning with applications from modern girls to enter the convent or

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age

poor districts under the supervision of a parish priest or pastor, had considerable autonomy in their daily lives, and by the early twentieth century a few had a foothold in their institutional government. The motivations for the foundation of deaconess orders in Britain were not the same as in Germany. Although, as in Kaiserswerth, their organizers had to deal with prejudices against popery, there was no rapid growth in British Roman Catholic sisterhoods. Mid-century concerns for the fate of unmarried women – ‘redundant’ spinsters – were directed at middle

in Women and the shaping of British Methodism
The state as actor

local authorities translate into actions. Globalization has inserted another dimension to this complex interplay between state and communities: foreign policy. The external relations of a state, until the late twentieth century, had very little direct impact on domestic minority politics. In conventional international relations, domestic and foreign policy are distinguished as two separate concepts occupying different terrains, although there is no denying that the values and ideas of the society shape the foreign policy of a country.2 However, it is no longer the

in Islam and identity politics among British-Bangladeshis
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1 1 Introduction Knowledge, they say, is power. One manifestation of the power of the Catholic Church within the independent Irish state in the middle decades of the twentieth century was the virtual monopoly its clergy and the educational institutions under their control possessed over the discipline of sociology.The first university posts in this discipline were filled in 1937, the year in which the voters of the twenty-​six-​county state ratified a new constitution that blended Anglo-​American liberal democratic norms with distinctive new provisions

in Church, state and social science in Ireland
Nationalism, universalism and Europe

after the military disasters in late spring and summer 1940 and, then, in the period after the crisis had passed. A final section explores how British identity was imagined within larger contexts. The Oldham group and the nation: from Oxford to Dunkirk While Christianity has a complex relationship to national identity, there has tended to be what John Baillie called ‘a positive relation between the Church and at least a nation’, particularly in the twentieth century. 3 But that relation was often contested. Inter-war ecumenism distinguished between a positive

in This is your hour

twentieth century. Homosocial networks within religious cultures were noted places of deep friendship between women. 8 Scholars of women religious (including myself) have often focused on the forbidden practice of ‘particular friendships’. 9 Close relationships within convent discourse were considered transgressive; they were seen as exclusionary and associated with the divisiveness of convent cliques. Academic scholarship has insisted that this transgression was more sexual, and implied that the prohibition of such rules against ‘particular friendships’ forbade sexual

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
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[W]ith apologies to Mrs. Pankhurst, the ‘ Emancipation of Religious Women ’ – that is the question of the world in the cloister, and the Nuns (I use the word in the popular sense) in the world; and the critical eyes of the world which are turned on the Nuns whether she is in her Convent or out of it. 1 Introduction In making reference to Emmeline Pankhurst, the leader of the suffragette movement of the early twentieth century, Mother Mary Andrew, a member of the Franciscan Missionaries of the Divine Motherhood, was suggesting that the changes in

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
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‘not only compatible with modernity, but as in some contexts a species of modernity’. 5 Scholars of social and cultural histories of the long 1960s have failed to recognise the significance of the cultural shifts within the Catholic Church in the second half of the twentieth century in relation to wider social movements. If at all acknowledged, the emphasis has often been placed on how the ideals and values of Christian denominations were challenged by shifting moral standards resulting in declining church attendance. A new religious history has begun to

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
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Freedom of belief, freedom from belief

. Bradford University Centre for Peace Studies produced a major report which concluded that of the thirty-one wars of the twentieth century only three were directly attributable to religion. Usually they were a toxic combination of politics and tribalism. Of the 150 million deaths in the wars of the twentieth century, 75 per cent were the result of four events – World Wars I and II, Stalin’s massacres in Russia and Mao’s in China. None of these conflicts had a major religious component. Indeed only 1 per cent of deaths came from conflicts that did have that component. Of

in Religion and rights
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Chapter 2, but in his case he directly challenges some aspects of the image of early medieval Ireland as a land of saints and scholars. That particular idea, cherished by generations of Catholics in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as a totem of a holy and learned tradition, is now open to serious question. What can be said of the early medieval period is that Ireland did indeed contribute enormously to the development of European civilisation. However, the institutional church far from being of positive benefit to early Christian Ireland was by turns domineering

in Irish Catholic identities