2471Ch2 6/2/03 12:04 pm Page 39 2 Regular regiments at war The period from the landing of the British Expeditionary Force in France in August 1914 until the end of September 1915 saw a large number of strains put on the discipline and morale of the Irish regiments and the expeditionary force in general. Firstly, there was the transition from a peacetime to a wartime situation, which naturally saw many changes in the British army, not least in its disciplinary code. Offences, such as sleeping on duty and desertion, which would, in peacetime, have led to

in The Irish regiments in the Great War

8 1 The global gamble of a new Cold War Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 was brought down amid a new Cold War between the Atlantic bloc and Russia, and greatly exacerbated it. So understanding the tragedy also requires us to contextualise it in this wider confrontation pitting the liberal West against a loose contender bloc composed of several relatively disjointed parts. These include the Russian-​inspired Eurasian Union and at a further remove, the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, together comprising half the world’s population) and the

in Flight MH17, Ukraine and the new Cold War

9 4 The civil war and the MH17 disaster The February 2014 regime change in Kiev placed state power in the hands of Ukrainian ultra-​nationalists and anti-​Russian billionaires intent on removing the country from the post-​Soviet orbit and reorienting it to the West. ‘The profound civic impetus for dignity and good governance at the heart of the Maidan revolution’, writes Richard Sakwa, ‘was hijacked by the radicals who followed the monist path to its logical conclusion while allowing oligarch power to be reconstituted’.1 The country’s inevitable break-​up was

in Flight MH17, Ukraine and the new Cold War

4 Labour and socialism during the First World War in Bristol and Northampton Matthew Kidd Over the last thirty years, formerly dominant interpretations of British political, cultural and social history have come under sustained attack from a diverse range of ‘revisionist’ scholars. This historiographical vanguard has, to varying extents, drawn attention to the enduring prevalence of populist political attitudes and trans-class social identities in early twentieth-century Britain. While this revisionist challenge has provided a valuable corrective to stage

in Labour, British radicalism and the First World War

5 A stronghold of liberalism? The north-east Lancashire cotton weaving districts and the First World War Jack Southern The First World War fundamentally altered the cotton ‘weaving belt’ areas of Lancashire and was, despite a temporary reprieve in 1919/20, to spell the start of a slow, painful, economic and social decline. The disruption of trade arising from the war ultimately commenced the transformation of an area that prided itself on its independence and ability to ‘make’ money, to one that by the 1930s many operatives and owners looked to escape. As a

in Labour, British radicalism and the First World War

Since the end of the Cold War, NATO has been significantly reoriented and retooled across the board. This process of change has been captured under two main labels. Internal adaptation is NATO-speak for looking at how the institution works, and whether it can be made to work better and more effectively. The process has embraced the possibility of creating procedures and structures whereby European member

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Post-9/11 Horror and the Gothic Clash of Civilisations

Twentieth century cinema involving monster conflict featured solitary monsters in combat (Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man, for example). The writing of Anne Rice and the RPG Vampire: The Masquerade by White Wolf Games introduced the idea of Gothic communities and civilisations in conflict. It was not until after the terror attacks of 11 September that the idea of a clash of civilisations between supernatural societies fully emerged into the mainstream of popular culture. This essay explores the construction of a clash of civilisations between supernatural communities as a form of using the Gothic as a metaphor for contemporary terrorism in film and television series such as Underworld, Twilight, True Blood and The Vampire Diaries. Inevitably, it is the lycanthropes that are the disempowered and disenfranchised society and are alternately exploited by and rebel against the dominant vampire civilisation grown decadent and on the verge of collapse. Post-9/11 Gothic posits a world in which vampire society is the new normal, and werewolves represent a hidden danger within. Lycanthropes must be controlled, profiled and/or fought and defeated. Through close readings of the cinematic and televisual texts, I explore the vampire/werewolf clash as metaphor and metonym for the war on terror.

Gothic Studies
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Other offences in international armed conflicts

been recognised as far back as the Lieber Code. 10 However, during the Second World War the practice of ‘carpet bombing’, which led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians, brought this proscription into question. 11 The modern prohibition against attacks upon civilians is contained within Article 51(2) of AP I and states, in language similar to that of Article 8(2)(b)(i), that ‘[t]he civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack’. 12 AP I defines ‘civilians’ negatively, by excluding those defined as

in War crimes and crimes against humanity in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
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Non-international armed conflicts

Background to non-international armed conflicts The extent of jurisdiction over war crimes committed in non-international armed conflicts in the Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) was a controversial issue at the Diplomatic Conference in Rome. 1 International humanitarian law relating to internal conflicts is less well developed than that relating to international armed conflicts, although in 1949 Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions established basic rules with respect to those persons not

in War crimes and crimes against humanity in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

This book explores the theory and practice of authority during the later sixteenth century, in the religious culture and political institutions of the city of Nantes, where the religious wars traditionally came to an end with the great Edict of 1598. The Wars of Religion witnessed serious challenges to the authority of the last Valois kings of France. In an examination of the municipal and ecclesiastical records of Nantes, the author considers challenges to authority, and its renegotiation and reconstruction in the city, during the civil war period. After a detailed survey of the socio-economic structures of the mid-sixteenth-century city, successive chapters detail the growth of the Protestant church, assess the impact of sectarian conflict and the early counter reform movement on the Catholic Church, and evaluate the changing political relations of the city council with the urban population and with the French crown. Finally, the book focuses on the Catholic League rebellion against the king and the question of why Nantes held out against Henry IV longer than any other French city.