work of Raymond
Williams, Spivak is likewise moved to challenge the work of Terry
Eagleton for its insularly national account of Jane Eyre’s class dynamics.
Jameson writes from a different but equally revisionary impulse: to extend
Lukácsian aesthetics to include the impact of empire building on metropolitan art, and to amplify Lenin’s conceptions of imperialism as the last
stage of capitalism. Like Jameson, Said and Spivak are also motivated by
expressly contemporary political goals. Spivak offers a strategic intervention against contemporary Anglo-European
[…] until Peter Greenaway, Derek Jarman and other film-makers emerged in the 1980s.’ 2 During the 1920s, the French, German and Soviet cinemas produced films which formed part of the broader artistic culture of Europeanmodernism and had direct links to movements such as expressionism, Dada, surrealism and constructivism. These films are now acknowledged as canonical in the history of art cinema and principal constituents of what Andrew Tudor has called ‘the period of “formation” during which the very status of cinema as art was a central focus for struggle’. 3 In
of shell-shock cases’ (The Edwardian
Turn of Mind, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1968, p. 114).
29 See Christopher Butler’s discussion of, and regular reference to, Freud in
his study of early modernism: Early Modernism: Literature, Music and
Painting in Europe 1900–1916 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1994). Elizabeth
Abel quotes Bronislaw Malinowski on this subject: ‘psychoanalysis has had
within the last ten years [1917–27] a truly meteoric rise in popular favour.
It has exercised a growing influence over contemporary literature, science
and art’ (Virginia
veterans known as gueules cassées (‘broken
mugs’), among whom Blaise Cendrars made a cameo, since he’d lost
his right arm at the front. Of course, in the film the living had no
retort. European modernity had argued that utopia and humanism
ultimately outweighed the negative aspects of innovation, exploitation, alienation, and colonization. Post-war modernism faced a radical
quandary: what should now be the project of modernity? How could
science, nationalism, commerce – even intellectuals themselves, who
had been largely pro-war as a class whether in France or Germany
Hopes and fears for a united Europe in Britain aft er the Second World War
Lara Feigel and Alisa Miller
The title for this chapter takes us back to 1951. The initial plans for the European Coal and Steel Community were underway, and it remained to be seen whether Britain would play a part in it. The United States, worried that the Europeans would continue to destroy each other and would eventually call once again on America for aid, wanted Britain to join whatever European Federation might be about to emerge. In Washington the general hope was that Britain might act as a kind of sensible older sibling, preventing the tantrums of her European neighbours from
‘Embattled tendencies’: Wharton, Woolf
and the nature of Modernism
Edith Wharton eyed Bloomsbury as an intellectually remote and morally
murky world, admiring only one of its members, Lytton Strachey. After
Mary Berenson urged her to read Virginia Woolf ’s Orlando in 1928,
Wharton responded viscerally to the advertising photographs of Woolf,
claiming the images made her ‘quite ill’. The novel’s portrait of Vita
Sackville-West, who had had an aﬀair with Wharton’s friend Geoﬀrey
Scott just prior to her liaison with Woolf, pressed a nerve: ‘I
García Márquez, Isabel Allende, Italo Calvino, Neil Gaiman or
Michael Moorcock. It is within this international experimentalist
trend, which she considers to be a direct descendant from Modernism, that Jeanette Winterson has often aligned herself:
working off Calvino [in The Passion] was a way of aligning myself with
the European tradition where I feel much more comfortable. That’s a
tradition which uses fantasy and invention and leaps of time, of space,
rather than in the Anglo-American tradition which is much more
realistic in its narrative drive and much more
public. While in the past thirty years
printmaking reflected every style and trend, it was often a refuge
for the artist whose work was figurative, narrative, socially
conscious, or literary. It was a less rigid corner of the art world
– one in which the formalist aspects of modernism could be
circumvented. While the general tendency was toward more color and
larger scale, this
, Essays in Understanding , 391; also Benhabib, The Reluctant Modernism of Hannah Arendt , 86–95. For more on the connection between Arendt and Habermas, see P. J. Verovšek , ‘ A Case of Communicative Learning: Rereading Habermas’s Philosophical Project through an Arendtian Lens ,’ Polity , 51 : 3 ( 2019 ), 597 –627 .
22 Frank, Constituent Moments , ch. 1.
23 Verovšek, ‘Unexpected Support for European Integration,’ 389–413.
24 H. Arendt , On Revolution ( New York : Penguin Classics , 1990 ), 204 .
25 S. Benhabib , ‘ Democratic Exclusions and
Modernism and postmodernism
O gentlemen, the time of life is short!
If life did ride upon a dial’s point,
Still ending at the arrival of an hour.
And if we live, we live to tread on kings.
William Shakespeare, Henry IV, Part 1 5.2.82–7.
So we should not expect Foucault to give us a philosophical theory that
deploys … notions. Still, philosophy is more than theories.
‘Foucault and Epistemology’ by Richard Rorty in David Couzens Hoy
(ed.), Foucault: A Critical Reader1
Foucault: the catcher in the modern rye
When discussing modernity, one