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Introduction Stephen Gundle, Christopher Duggan and Giuliana Pieri The aim of this volume is to provide the first multifaceted analysis of the genesis, functioning and decline of the personality cult surrounding Benito Mussolini, the dictator who ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 and who headed the Nazi-dominated Italian Social Republic between 1943 and 1945. Mussolini was the first European dictator of the inter-war years and many of the forms of leadership embraced by Hitler, Franco and others were inspired by the practices that flourished around the man known at

in The cult of the Duce
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The Holocaust as a yardstick

seen by Muslims in Europe as colonialist occupiers. It’s easier therefore for Muslim Europeans who have found it hard to integrate to identify with the Palestinians.17 As Ajami concludes, the encounter with the West, with modernism and with freedom of expression is very painful. What is perceived as the non-integration of Muslim migrants – the ‘dish cities’ of many TV satellite dishes tuned to Arabic or Muslim channels – is a result of this encounter. In painful, even cruel words Ajami focuses on some of the ruins and disasters of this encounter: There is an Arab

in Haunted presents

young woman to a Soviet newspaper, which Sheila Fitzpatrick and Yuri Slezkin include in their collection of documents on women’s lives in Russia.This woman describes her sexual escapades and writes to explain that she does not want to belong to the Communist Party because of how she was hurt by her lovers. The Party was to blame because it condoned the exploitation of women and the absence of male commitment to lovers and families in the name of “free love.”1 The conservative turn of the 1930s involved 126 Modernism and the making of the Soviet New Man a backlash

in Modernism and the making of the Soviet New Man
Open Access (free)

). Ultimately, as the conclusion to these two chapters, the fragmentation endemic to modernism (represented in these cases by the war, by technology and by the contemporary perception of the ‘woman problem’), involves multiple perspectives that can destroy one’s sense of one’s world and one’s sense of oneself. But this isn’t always the case. Regeneration, of the kind that eventually comes to Tietjens, as the end point of his journey through war, is also in its gift. This chapter traces the roots of this (often atavistic2) regenerative possibility in Ford, a possibility that

in Fragmenting modernism
Creativity, experimentation and innovation

an art cinema in a European country such as France, for example, is rarely if ever contested, such claims have very rarely been forcefully made about Britain. In his important essay, ‘The Last New Wave: Modernism in the British Films of the Thatcher Era’, Peter Wollen argues that British cinema only developed a modernist, auteurist art cinema, or a ‘New Wave’ in the continental tradition, when Derek Jarman and Peter Greenaway emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s. For Wollen it was ‘both inappropriate and misleading’ 21 to label the

in British art cinema
The conceptual horizons of the avant-garde in Armenia

imperatives of the period following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 and the sovietization of the country in 1921. In turn, contemporary art (or the national avant-garde in Karoyan’s formulation) dealt with the ongoing legacy of the National Modernism of the 1960s and 1970s in a rather ambiguous manner, through a dialectic of rupture and continuity, while considering itself an avant-garde art. In Eastern Europe in the 1960s, the advent of the neo-avant-garde is linked to the youth culture of rebellion, a rereading of Marx and a theoretical articulation of various shades of

in The political aesthetics of the Armenian avant-garde
Word and image in Chicago Surrealism

American Surrealists, some forty-two years after the movement was initiated in 1924. To make Surrealism function as they wished, continuing the movement’s long-standing commitment to the reconciliation of the ‘marvelous’ and political praxis, they needed to redress what they saw as fundamental misunderstandings of the movement, which assumed that Surrealism was a European interwar avantgarde, consigned to appear only in commercialised or institutionalised forms in post-war America.2 As part of this process, the Chicago group formulated innovative, though idiosyncratic

in Mixed messages
Cinematic realism, philosophical realism and film theory

nineteenth century. This is because that realist movement, and particularly the form of ‘serious’ realism (to use Auerbach’s term) which Chapter 1 of this book is concerned with, was both modernist and avant-garde from its inception. 1 The terms ‘modernism’ and ‘avant-garde’ have, of course, always been highly contested ones, defined through an assortment of perspectives and an industry of critical

in Realist film theory and cinema

Modernism and the making of the Soviet New Man Before moving on to understand how buildings and, implicitly, the Soviet system of the 1930s worked, it is worth considering how things did not work. In his story, “Bathhouse,” written in 1924, the Russian writer Mikhail Zoshchenko relates his attempt to take a bath in one of Leningrad’s banyas – public facilities for bathing and steaming the body and doing laundry.1 Zoshchenko never succeeds in his attempt. He only encounters the representatives of petty bureaucracy and finds himself immersed in the chaos of Leningrad

in Modernism and the making of the Soviet New Man

, they are a subaltern element in the process of globalization-from-above. At the same time, seeking by whatever means – legal or illegal – to evade the consequences of globalization, they move along uncharted routes, and exploit their lateral connections in order to negotiate or subvert the borders, barriers, legal constraints, and regulative regimes metropolitan powers put in place – a sort of deregulated globalization-from-below. Since the rules and the climate surrounding migration within the West (Europe, North America, Australasia) are constantly shifting, they

in Migration into art