Representing the supernatural in film adaptations of A Midsummer
keeping with the material instability of the fairies and the supernatural. Yet stage performances are limited by the bodies on the stage who perform in real time and can only do so within the confines of what is humanly possible. Even though cinema appears to represent reality, time is not contiguous when making the film. This gives film the ability to create special effects with editing, which in turn offers exciting potential for representing the supernatural in Shakespeare's plays. André Bazin originally thought that, because photography was a vestige of a past
National cinema, indigenous creativity and the international market
that ‘despite this twist, ultimately the film conforms to the
established tradition in terms of a reliance on the romantic and
elemental appeal of the beauty and remoteness of the landscape’
(2000a, p. 155). Later, in discussing the film’s melancholic ending
he writes that ‘even this coda assumes the form of sentimental
longing, stimulated by a romantic encounter with an idealised vision
of Scotland’ (2000a, p. 156).
As with other motifs of this group of films set in remote parts
of Scotland, Local Hero makes landscape photography one of
its main attractions, but
Soviet montage and the American cinematic avant-garde
‘newsreel in six parts’ Kino Glaz, which positioned a disembodied
eye within a photomontage over a geometric background with architectonic
text – the poster, in effect, created a Constructivist nexus of photography, film,
typography, and design.
The Soviet of Three produced several films during the mid 1920s, including
watching the red dawn
A Sixth Part of the World (1926) and The Eleventh Year (1928), but the first film to
be screened in the United States was The Man with a Movie Camera (1929). The
premiere of the film at the Film Guild Cinema, a building
England, pp. 205–6.
36 The image is reproduced in J. Taylor, War Photography: Realism in the British Press
(London: Routledge, 1991), p. 87.
37 The image and the words of the commentary for Britain Can Talk It are repro
duced in Q. Reynolds (commentary), Britain Can Take It: The Book of the Film
(London: John Murray, 1941) [n.p].
38 Reprinted in Taylor, War Photography, p. 59.
39 Audiences objected to images in newsreels of corpses on the home front. J. Fox,
Film Propaganda in Britain and Nazi Germany: World War II Cinema (Oxford:
Berg, 2007), p. 115.
40 See P
can be no doubt about the general direction of travel.
Foundations and influences
The SEL was initially set up at Harvard as a collaborative venture between the Department of Anthropology and the Department of Visual and Environmental Studies. On the home page of its website, it describes itself as ‘an experimental laboratory that promotes innovative combinations of aesthetics and ethnography’. In addition to film, it is also involved in the production of still photography, sound recordings and
times, seeks out a fantasy of the small town and the
folk as a retreat from such forces’. Not surprisingly, the relational
production of rural and urban identities again features within many of these
amateur narratives. Cinematic countrysides closes with a contemporary
rendering of alternative imagery. In their account of the Amber FilmandPhotography Collective in the north east of England, Katy Bennett and
today’s medical historian.
The medical interests of early cine users sometimes extended
beyond Britain. For instance, Dr Horace Wilfred Taylor, from Bolton, filmed
Tour in the USSR while travelling with his grandfather in an organised
group from the Manchester region to Soviet Russia in 1932. 32 His still photographyand
cine footage at clinics and hospitals reflect the official expectation that
visitors should encounter
According to its director, Terence
Fisher, The Gorgon (1964) was not a horror film at all, but a
romantic fairy tale and ‘frustrated love story’ (Ringel, 1975a : 24). Although the
film is set in Hammer’s usual stylised middle Europe, the Gorgon
herself derives not from Gothic literature, like Dracula and
Frankenstein’s monster, but from classical mythology –
these processes blurs all outlines and renders colours
unstable, and the stop-motion photography seems to be trying, but eventually
failing, to arrest time itself, whilst also insisting on our paying
increased and loving attention to the objects photographed. In this way the
film exemplifies the Russian Formalist dictum that ‘the technique of
art is to make objects “unfamiliar”, to make forms difficult, to
service of auteurism, notions of film as art, and
the search for commercial success. These include the use of the long
take, a documentary-style social realist take on a sci-fi premise, as well
as tropes taken from action-adventure filmsand the chase movie.
Thus, Cuarón takes a hybrid transgenre approach in the sense that
the film applies conventions and tropes from a number of genres
and merges them together. The most commented upon stylistic
feature applied by Cuarón and his director of photography, Lubezki,
is the use of the long take. This is also the element most