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Megan Smitley

, it was also a site of political participation and social activism. Female associationalism was a central site of women’s public participation, and the causes of temperance, suffrage and Liberalism were significant for incorporating women into public debate and electoral politics. A belief in the social and moral importance of the maternal and domestic was integral to middle-class women’s culture, and the women’s temperance movement illustrates the importance of gender and social class to the feminine public sphere. Female temperance reform responded to middle

in The feminine public sphere
Gender, women and power
Susan M. Johns

could participate in contemporary politics effectively and decisively. The inclusion of the sealing clause by Paris is indicative of this executive power and confirms that Paris knew the significance of the use and ownership of a seal. Such seals were symbolically powerful and the seal matrices themselves as tangible objects resonated with symbolic associations. Just over thirty years later the obliteration of the royal power and inheritance of Gwynedd by Edward I after the defeat of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd involved measures to counter the

in Gender, nation and conquest in the high Middle Ages
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Arrest and prison
Carrie Hamilton

socks and this and that. And everything for himself.’ She talked about a couple, I don’t even know who they are, ‘Wow! He needs all kinds of things and she never asks for anything!’ . . . I think women’s spirit is very strong. (#17, b. 1958) In 1996 former Burgos defendant and longtime radical nationalist leader Itziar Aizpurua was asked to send a message to other female activists from prison, where she was serving a sentence as a member of the national executive of the radical nationalist political party Herri Batasuna. She said: Keep fighting, keep fighting. We women

in Women and ETA
The Colonial Office, 1815–36
Zoë Laidlaw

proportion of the Colonial Office’s time spent resolving or mediating disputes between members of colonial administrations. 20 The time lost prompted the metropolitan civil servants, and sometimes their political masters, to work out, and attempt to implement, a series of pan-colonial reforms which would simplify procedures, increasing efficiency and raising standards of good

in Colonial connections, 1815–45
The rights and duties of women citizens
Caitríona Beaumont

2 Housewives and citizens: the rights and duties of women citizens Much of the political history of the twentieth century has been characterised by battles to extend, defend or give substance to political, civil and social rights of citizenship. Women played a central role in these struggles, not just for the vote but also for social citizenship 1 rights, often explicitly using the ideal of citizenship as their lode star. A s the previous chapter suggested, the five voluntary women’s organi­­­sations included in this study represented a wide variety of women

in Housewives and citizens
Cormac Behan

entitlement. However, the court went further and instructed the government and the Electoral Commission to make ‘all reasonable arrangements’ to enable prisoners to vote in the forthcoming election because the right to vote imposes ‘positive obligations on the legislature and the executive’ (August v. Electoral Commission, 1999). Mindful of the recent ending of apartheid and the denial of democratic rights to the majority, Justice O’Regan ruled: ‘To build the resilient democracy envisaged by our constitution we need to establish a culture of participation in the political

in Citizen convicts
Jon Lawrence

9 Public and private languages of ‘class’ in the Luton by-election of 1963 Jon Lawrence Labour gained the marginal seat of Luton at a by-election on 7 November 1963 with a majority of 3,749. It was seen at the time as an important sign that Labour could still win in the prosperous, expanding seats of southern England, and that so-called ‘affluent workers’ were not necessarily Conservative in their politics or ‘bourgeois’ in their tastes. In the left-leaning Tribune Donald Soper rejoiced that ‘At long last electors are becoming immunised against the pep pills of

in The art of the possible
Patrick Chaplin

Association reveal the subtext and the underlying ideology of the NDA executive. John Simons has argued that cricket has become ‘almost synonymous with all that is English and that, of the major sports, only cricket has taken on board the cultural weight which has ‘projected it out of the realm of the competitive and professional and into that of the aesthetic and … political’.38 Comparatively, darts could be described as almost synonymous with all that is English but, more accurately, all that is synonymous with The organisation of darts the English working class

in Darts in England, 1900–39
Social reform in Manchester
Sonja Tiernan

frail and delicate herself, but full of pluck and determination, and would stand up for people she knew to be unjustly treated, even though the world was against them.40 The birth of a rebel 55 Gore-Booth became aware of the deplorable working conditions that these women endured in the factories of the textile industry in Manchester. She soon became more politically active, joining the executive committee of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) in 1899. Gore-Booth stressed the importance of gaining votes for women in order to improve their

in Eva Gore-Booth
Martin Maguire

CSCA executive by H.P. Boland. It was felt that a permanent general-secretary would be free to talk as an equal with the senior civil servants. The CSCA also decided to publish a monthly journal as a vehicle for information and to heighten its profile.4 The journal, An Peann, was a quality production with regular reports on branches, executive council meetings, and meetings with officials, coverage of Dáil reports, updates on the fortunes of civil service in other countries, pieces in Gaelic and regular reports of civil service sports activity. Together Norton, Hughes

in The civil service and the revolution in Ireland, 1912–38