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Membership, privilege, and place
Lynn Dobson

as a geographical fusion and functional separation.40 As Maitland noted, pre-modern institutions performed several functions and one and the same institution might be a legislative assembly, a governmental council and a court of law.41 Granting, withholding, and upholding of rights took place between a patchwork of often competing courts, where competence and jurisdiction was divided by custom and historical accretion rather than functionally. Rights and duties, on the other hand, were differentiated according to status, and status also determined the kind of

in Supranational Citizenship
Michael Banton

best be understood as part of the history of the extension of the rule of law. It is a story of struggle. The origins of the Convention ICERD was the pioneer in showing what might be possible. The initiative that made it possible started at the end of the 1950s in the fear of a revival of Nazism in western Germany. It was first expressed by a Charter-​based body, the Sub-​Commission for the Prevention of Discrimination and the Protection of Minorities. Since Jews were thought to be differentiated both by their race and by their religion, the Sub-​Commission coupled

in Fifty years of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
(Re)evaluating the EU–Africa relationship
Michael Smith

terms of activities by the EBA regulation, or by the various sectoral arrangements set up under Lomé and largely continued under Cotonou – subject of course to the broader dictates of World Trade Organisation (WTO) legality. In the area of security, as pointed out by Whitman and Haastrup in chapter 4, there is further differentiation by types of mission and mandate, and by the extent of local ‘­ownership’ of 312 Conclusion operations. The result of these and other arrangements is a highly differentiated set of relationships between the EU and its external targets

in The European Union in Africa
Open Access (free)
Roslyn Kerr

sport attempt to ban or limit the use of particular technologies, seeing them as entirely separate from individuals. As previously discussed, seeing the two as separate was shown to be problematic in the case of Oscar Pistorius, whose legs are so interconnected with his ability to run at all that he epitomises Donna Haraway’s ( 2004 ) notion of the cyborg, with no discernible differentiation between human and technology. It is also problematic with regard to doping, where vast sums of money are spent in

in Sport and technology
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Trish Winter and Simon Keegan-Phipps

4 An English style? Central to any formation or consolidation of identity, national or otherwise, are processes of differentiation. The differentiations inherent in the present resur­ gence of English folk are, for the benefit of our understanding of the move­ ment, two-fold. Primarily, the movement must necessarily be concerned with the essentialisation of those concrete aspects of the English folk arts that are identified with Englishness. In other words, a successful negotiation of English identity through the folk arts cannot be achieved without an

in Performing Englishness
Simon Bulmer and Martin Burch

, has only recently become institutionalised. We can perhaps characterise its general features as fluid, open, network-based, rule-guided, sectorised and subject to significant inter-institutional bargaining.3 Brigid Laffan highlights the ‘dense institutionalisation’ of EU governance, its ‘continuous system of negotiations’ and ‘high degree of functional differentiation’, with a ‘rhythm of control that is beyond the control of any one member state’ (2007: 128–9, italics in original). The policy process is fluid in the short or medium term because it is characterised

in The Europeanisation of Whitehall
Noelle Gallagher

subversive Procopian tradition of secret history, as well as to differentiate the Examen from formal historical narrative. While the subject matter and format of the text were clearly consistent with the rhetoric of secret history, North anxiously pointed to his royalist politics as proof of his work’s respectability, insisting that his own account, unlike those of secret historians

in Historical literatures
Niilo Kauppi

, whose social function was to defend justice and freedom. Since those times, intellectuals have become a significant social force. When discussing intellectuals we should be discussing intellectual culture, democracy and the public sphere, as they all go together. If two thousand years ago the producers of intellectual goods were also their consumers, today we have three functionally specialised groups, the producers, the intermediates and the consumers. The intermediates, more often than before, specialised journalists or pundits, are directly competing with the

in Democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union
Fashioning a journeyer identity
Emma Robinson-Tomsett

identity within the journey abroad. The journey chronicler was the new identity most frequently adopted by women. The chronicler evoked the journey abroad experientially, in varying degrees of detail, through a discourse of journey routine and functionality, a discourse that has been partly already explored in Chapters 4 and 5. Women’s adoption of this role re-emphasizes that they did not undertake their journeys passively: they actively consumed them and recorded the nature of their experience in full, both creating a permanent personal memorial to it and informing any

in Women, travel and identity
Francisco Alonso-Almeida

and medical practices. Methodology and definitions My linguistic description of recipes is underpinned by the principles of functional grammar. 4 This model favours the description of a text in terms of its function in society and the relationship of the text with the audience in terms of lexical formalities: that is, its register. The main characteristics of the

in Reading and writing recipe books, 1550–1800