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Negotiating community

Karbala. They also highlighted ‘Ali’s courage, his eloquence of speech, his honesty, and his simple way of life, thereby appealing to tribal values of masculinity, courage, pride, honor and chivalry. (Nakash 1994: 46) Nakash thus relates the development of Iraqi Shi‘a poetry to the social structure of society. He contrasts Iraqi Shi‘ism with the Shi‘ism that developed in Iran, where Shi‘ism became the state religion and permeated the entire society, including the urban regions (1994: 6). Interestingly, the image of the heroic martyr was taken up at a much later point

in Iraqi women in Denmark
Critical reflections

among them about how consumption choices, especially in modes of dress and make-up, can habitually exclude them from what are seen as middle-class patterns of adornment and behaviour; this results in feelings of class shame and humiliation as well as resentment. Working-class men can gain respect and self-esteem from a form of hard masculinity, in other words by being ultra-masculine, but it is difficult for working-class women to be ultra-feminine, and glamorous, because the very definitions of these characteristics are class-coded. It is worth mentioning that Owen

in Bauman and contemporary sociology
The minimum wage campaign

the minimum wage, 21 December 1911. 102 NRO, 759/B/5, MFGB special conferences, 20 December 1911; 18–19 January 1912. 103 NRO, 759/B/6, MFGB special conference, 1–2 February 1912. 104 Durham Chronicle, 11 August 1911. 105 NRO, 759/B/5, MFGB, special conference on the minimum wage question, 14 and 15 November 1911. 106 Newcastle Daily Chronicle, 22 January 1912. 107 Durham Chronicle, 12 January 1912; 17 April 1926. 108 Lawson, Minimum Wage, p. 11. 109 Lawson, Minimum Wage, p. 12. Regarding Durham miners’ masculinity, see Lawson’s lengthy description

in The Great Labour Unrest

organisers of the BLYDA have links with the East London Mosque. Interviewed 28 July 2000. Pseudonym, interviewed 29 November 2000. Interviewed 5 July 2000. Interview with youth worker, June 1999; and see Claire Alexander, ‘(Dis)Entangling the ‘Asian Gang’: Ethnicity, Identity, Masculinity’, in Barnor Hesse (ed.) Un/Settled Multiculturalisms: Diasporas, Entanglements, ‘Transruptions’ (London: Zed Books, 2000), p. 142. Insight editorial, September/October 2001. Pseudonym, interviewed 16 January 2001. Interviewed 5 July 2000. Pseudonym, interviewed 29 November 2000. Pseudonym

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End

example Montreal Gazette, 24 April 1878. 132 Hawaiian Gazette, 29 April 1868. 133 Greg King, Twilight of Splendour: The Court of Queen Victoria during her Diamond Jubilee (London, 2007), p. 2. 134 Ibid., p. 4; Reed, Royal Tourists, pp. 35–76. 135 Clarissa Campbell Orr, ‘The Feminization of the Monarchy, 1780‒1910: Royal Masculinity and Female Empowerment’, in Andrzej Olechnowicz (ed.), The Monarchy and the British Nation, 1780 to the Present (Cambridge, 2007), p. 92. 136 Helen Rappaport, Queen Victoria: A Biographical Companion (Santa Barbara, CA, 2003), p. 135. 137

in The English diaspora in North America
The three Rs – race, relations and arithmetic

? Investigating the claims of ‘underachievement’ amongst Bangladeshi pupils in British secondary schools’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 3:2 (2000), pp. 145–68; Louise Archer, Race, Masculinity and Schooling: Muslim Boys and Education (Maidenhead, 2003); and Hussain, Muslims on the Map, pp. 53–5. See Mike Eslea and Kafeela Mukhtar, ‘Bullying and racism among Asian schoolchildren in Britain’, Educational Research, 42:2 (2000), pp. 207–17; and David Gilbert, ‘Racial and religious discrimination: The inexorable relationship between schools and the individual’, Intercultural

in Foreigners, minorities and integration