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Women in the Freethought movement

local societies has suggested that there were some opportunities for women to participate in the movement at the rank and file level. Leading female Freethinkers were on the whole from the upper-working and lower-middle class (though a few came from wealthier backgrounds) and for them a commitment to Freethought often entailed financial insecurity. They combined their Freethinking views with adherence to a variety of radical

in Infidel feminism

increasingly implemented in schools after the Second World War, teachers’ concepts of youth became more qualified, pessimistic and ambivalent. The changing class profile of the profession after the war resulted in a different relationship with pupils, but this cannot be reduced to the simplistic sociological model that suggested middle-class teachers were unable to understand their working-class pupils. 10

in A progressive education?
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Transitioning from film to digital

explores how each series uses horror-film conventions to depict perceived threats to society, including the underclass of Prime Suspect , middle-class femininity in Frost , and Cracker ’s working-class ‘masculinity in crisis’. Next, the sombreness pervading the private lives of detectives is explored to deduce how each series’ presentation of civilian life engages with notable socio

in You’re nicked

bar communities as affirmative and familiar, other women emphasised a sense of alienation from the subculture. Historiographical accounts of the US lesbian bar culture in this period have focused on class as the important distinguishing feature of different lesbian communities, constructing the bar community as working class, in contrast to a more discreet middle-class lesbian community. In her analysis of middle-class lesbians’ narratives of bar life in Colorado Springs, Katie Gilmartin argued that the identities projected within the bar communities posed a

in Tomboys and bachelor girls
Schoolboy literature and the creation of a colonial chivalric code

celebrated evangelical decency, the work ethic and imperial expansion. The Victorian boy, primarily but not exclusively from the middle classes, was at one and the same time the predominant focus of the novelist’s attention, the idealised repository of these virtues and the representative symbol of male morality. The most famous of these boys was of course, Tom Brown of Tom

in Imperialism and juvenile literature
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America to obtain the lifting of trade restrictions and legislative independence for the Irish parliament.1 These dual objectives were achieved in 1779 and 1782 respectively. Yet the executive branch of the Irish government remained responsible to the Imperial cabinet. Moreover, the Viceroy retained the ability to manipulate the corrupt Irish parliament through the liberal distribution of patronage. Most importantly, the Reform Act of 1782 failed to address the aspirations of the Protestant middle classes, which largely remained excluded from the political process. By

in In the wake of the great rebellion
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Work, play, and criticism

reversed. Enclosure of public land and increasingly crowded living conditions in the expanding cities also put pressure on traditional forms of recreation. George Offer, appearing before the 1833 Select Committee on Public Walks, reflected that Great Tower Hill, where he used to play as a boy, had been enclosed and only the upper classes permitted entry. Naked bathing in London, once a popular sport for working-class youths, now exercised the middle classes because, in a congested city, they were more likely accidentally to encounter it. In 1833 it was reported that

in Thomas Hood and nineteenth-century poetry
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literature provided the means by which the middle-class mercantile exploration-colonisation tradition, epitomised by Robinson Crusoe, was reconciled with the chivalric aristo-military tradition revivified by Scott. Juvenile literature operates on the lower slopes of this Parnassus of adventure, steeped in every aspect of imperialism. It functions therefore not just as a mirror of the age but an active agency

in Imperialism and juvenile literature

exclusively from the British middle classes. In this respect, their emphasis on the diversity of the British population in the Lot can be understood as an effort to claim their individual migrations as being distinctive – prompted by their own subjective circumstances – rather than as an accurate statement about the diversity of the population. Indeed, this focus on distinctiveness is also evident in their claims to the exclusivity of the Lot as a destination. The manner in which the initial decision to migrate was conceptualized was revealing of the lives that my

in The British in rural France
Dickens on working-class scarcity and middle-class excess

6 ‘Please, sir, I want some more’: Dickens on working-class scarcity and middle-class excess Chartists such as John James Bezer firmly rejected Christian charity as the real solution to the difficulties they faced as poor consumers. They understood that the bread and cheese grudgingly stuffed in their mouths by bodies such as the Society for the Suppression of Mendicity was intended to silence them and ensure their political subordination, and this was too high a price to pay. However, the importance of charitable giving by the better off continued to be urged

in Wanting and having