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majority of seats. As leader of the government of a neutral state, Kreisky was able to play a role (with others such as Olaf Palme) in mediation in several international conflicts, especially in the Middle East. He resigned as Chancellor following the loss of a parliamentary majority in the 1983 elections. [See also: Palme; nazism*] Krenz, Egon The last leader of the communist regime in

in The politics today companion to West European Politics

young adults and the middle-aged, which are ‘up to ten times those of other Australians … [and] largely account for the very low expectation of life experienced by Aborigines throughout the country. It is this indicator, more than any other, which clearly summarises the extent of Aboriginal health disadvantages’ (Thompson, 1991: 239). Moreover, the gap in mortality rates is not being progressively whittled away, as the broader history of health and health services in Australia might lead us to expect. According to the data available, in some regions death rates for

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Andrew Williams

its liberal, protestant political culture’. Where nationalism was the dominant feature of political culture, as in Germany, and ‘where liberalism was too weak to nourish [any form of] pacifism’, or in France where such movements were almost exclusively on the left, there were also ‘strategic factors’ at play. It was easier to take a ‘middle position between submissiveness and Realpolitik’, as pacificists did in Britain or the USA, when the threat of an expansionist neighbour was not as obvious as it was for France.17 It could equally be argued that to stand out

in Failed imagination?

of this new discriminatory conception of war should be seen as a completely new ideological phenomenon associated with the industrial-​technological development of late-​modern means of destruction: This is not the ‘just’ war of Middle Ages theologians, of which spoke Vittoria and, under his influence, Grotius and the internationalists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This attempt at eliminating one’s political adversary by portraying him as a criminal and the ultimate obstacle to world peace is radically new because it embraces the whole world … By

in American foreign policy

January 1952:4). Ben-Gurion’s verdict against the establishment of Arab parties reflected a wide consensus not only among those in charge of the surveillance agencies but also among the Jewish political class as a whole. Consequently, no independent Arab party – or even an independent nationwide framework which could constitute a basis for such a party – was allowed to operate not only during the Military Government era but also in the following two decades. While Ben-Gurion’s decree regarding the prohibition of the establishment of an independent Arab party became a

in Thorough surveillance
The economic dynamics

social legislation and environmental regulation. Northern Ireland lies somewhere in the middle of the regulation spectrum, and thus the evolution of harmonised and regulated EU policy sectors places a financial burden on the region in its attempts to comply with EU legislative requirements. This is explicitly noted in Northern Ireland’s Draft Investment Strategy (2011): ‘Meeting the requirements of the EU Nitrates and EU Water Frameworks … has financial repercussions’ (p. 13). The costs are linked to the need for Northern Ireland to become more energy-efficient by

in Northern Ireland and the European Union
Abstract only
Rejuvenating ‘supply-side’ explanations

extension, the argument is that the skewed membership of such groups (middle class, medium–high income, young persons) is best explained not simply by theories focused on prevailing citizen views/attitudes (post-materialism) or some core human rationality (Olsonian) but by the fact that groups aggressively target and seek out this segment of the public because they are reliable joiners. In passing, it is somewhat puzzling that any ‘test’ of Olson would be explicitly conducted on the terrain of so-called ‘public’ interest groups. While it is

in Groups, representation and democracy

about equality and democracy were just some of the elements of popular politics. Thus, this wing of the liberal mansion was not dominated by one easily identifiable segment of the population that ­possessed a stable political ideology. Rather, popular liberalism was made up of working-class, middle-class and religious elements, and there were many different causes that captured the popular imagination.18 Some sat easily with liberal ideology. The Anti-Corn Law League was in both aims and methods an innovative organisation, which brought into being a new powerful

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930
Abstract only

9 Decline and fall A significant change The launching of the war on terror in September 2001 was shaped by two immediate factors: the new imperialist trajectory adopted by the US from the end of the Cold War, and the specific form and character of the George W. Bush administration. Seeking to craft a new world order more conducive to US interests, Washington’s response to the al-Qaeda attacks of 9/11 was driven by military measures designed to expand free market democracy in the Middle East and to establish a credible willingness to use force in defence of its

in New Labour and the new world order

‘the police, police, the judiciary, judge … get the software … the public servants, pay them!’ The image of the DRC as a failed state looms large over policy-making, but also over academic research. This is added to by activist media campaigns that portray the DRC as a place of desperation, war, neglect and tragedy: ‘the world’s worst country to live in’ (War Child 2011), ‘a Zaireshaped hole in the middle of Africa’ (The Economist cited in Reno 1998a: 14) and ‘the world’s largest failed state’ (Fisher 2009). The complexities of the multi-state wars that have taken

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making