Significantly, the poverty and breakdown of law and order in Albania also
led families to seek employment in neighbouring countries. The incremental
migration that had been ongoing since the end of the Cold War gathered
pace, giving Albanian groups a foothold in Italy and more generally across
Europe. This created a network of Albanian groups, some of whom were
involved in criminality. The trafficking of people, arms and drugs meant the
Albanian mafia quickly became influential in the region, providing a clandestine support network and secretive clan-based organisation rooted
presents four significant, yet largely fabricated claims. These are that the revived clan chiefs form an historical alliance, known as Ker Kwaro Acholi, which comes from the Luo group and dates back to a migration into Acholiland in the fifteenth century; that today Ker Kwaro Acholi’s council of clan chiefs constitutes a homogenous group hailing from lineages holding the same office in the pre-colonial period; that the traditional roles of the council of clan chiefs were and remain primarily as peacemakers and custodians of Acholi cultural practices; and finally that Ker
. Smith and P. Stares (eds), Diasporas in Conflict: Peacemakers or Peace-wreckers (New York: United Nations University Press, 2007); F.
Cochrane, Migration and Security in the Global Age: Diaspora Communities and Conflict
(New York: Routledge, 2015).
31 For example, see N. Abu Sandal, ‘Religious actors as epistemic communities in
conflict transformation: The cases of South Africa and Northern Ireland’, Review of
International Studies, 37:3 (2011), 929–49.
32 See J. D. Brewer, G. I. Higgins, and F. Teeney, Religion, Civil Society, & Peace in
Northern Ireland (Oxford
of youth combatants in Liberia’, (Sussex: Sussex Center
for Migration Studies Working Paper 29, 2006).
9 Independent Monitoring Commission, Twenty-Sixth and Final Report, p. 13.
10 C. Buchanan and J. Chavez, Negotiating Disarmament: Guns and Violence in the El
Salvador Peace Negotiations (Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 2008).
11 J. Morgenstein, Consolidating Disarmament Lessons from Colombia’s Reintegration
Program for Demobilized Paramilitaries (Washington, DC: United States Institute of
12 The Agreement Reached in the Multi
number of successes including the political and economic stabilisation of
the European continent, the enlargement of the EU from six to twenty-eight
member states, and the creation of the Euro. However, the EU has also weathered political and economic storms. The most serious related to the global
economic crisis post 2007 which threatened to fatally undermine the stability
of the Eurozone area. External challenges – including conflict on the borders
of the EU, particularly in the Ukraine and Turkey, and inward migration
from war-torn parts of Africa and the Middle
leaders rejected the idea of Turkish membership largely on cultural
grounds (Buzan and Diez 1997 : 45). As Buzan and Diez also note (p. 43), fears of
large-scale waves of migration from Turkey into the EU (most
particularly, into Germany) have also been high on the list of concerns
of the effects of Turkish membership.
This is particularly contentious because
Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria- Hungary
said; they lived off aid, engaged in profiteering and
dishonest business practices, and shirked military duty. Government
officials, politicians, newspaper columnists and ordinary members of
the public engaged in variations on these themes, arguing for refugee
removal and repatriation. As anti-Jewish feeling proliferated throughout the war, the customary complaints about the refugees spread to the
Jewish population as a whole.7
Studies of the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria-Hungary have
typically focused on refugee migration into major centres further
massacres perpetrated on the civil
population – the first of their kind in twentieth-century warfare – inflicted
wounds far deeper than the defeat itself.22
The British consul in Salonika witnessed the process of forced migration
and reported as follows:
The result of the massacre of Muslims at the beginning of the war, of the
looting of their goods in the ensuing months, of the settling of Christians in
their villages, of their persecution by Christian neighbours, of their torture
and beating by Greek troops, has been the creation of a state of terror among
, see www.canterbury.ac.nz/ncre/research/euperceptions/.
5 Full list of keywords includes also Council of European Union, European
Council, European Court of Justice / ECJ and European Parliament / EP.
6 The migration crisis started getting serious only later in June 2015.
Anholt, Simon. (2005). Brand New Justice: How Branding Places and Products Can
Help the Developing World. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Press.
Brooks, Stephen. (2015). Anti-Americanism and the Limits of Public Diplomacy:
Winning Hearts and Minds? London: Routledge Press
A comparative case study of Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda
Ivica Petrikova and Melita Lazell
consider the real-world implications of securitisation: what kinds of programme are actually promoted within the discourse, specifically in Africa? Africa is a region of strategic importance to the UK ( ibid .: 14). Violence, conflict, instability and extremism in the continent are identified as the root causes of unprecedented migration flows to Europe ( ibid .: 7, 13). According to the policy discourse, reducing conflict and instability in Africa requires two types of development intervention. The first seeks to encourage the development of democratic, inclusive