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Examining Ireland’s failure to regulate embryonic stem cell research

scientific promise and ethical uncertainty, policy-­makers are left with a difficult task of determining the legal status of the embryo and the development of ESCR policy. They must choose between affording the embryo full legal status which may help them avoid a potentially politically damaging debate on the right to life, or decide to promote the development of science with a policy that permits the destruction of the embryo. Yet despite numerous reports and judicial pronouncements on this issue, the Irish legislature DONNELLY 9780719099465 PRINT.indd 150 12/10/2015 15

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare

. The timing of the government’s Registration Bill has traditionally been explained by the impact of the First World War. An influx of voluntary aid detachment nurses (VADs), Anne Summers argues, complicated the issue of who was qualified to nurse, and the College of Nursing wanted to control the nurse labour market by stipulating conditions of entry and training.2 The award of professional status is interpreted as chiming with public and political sympathy towards improving the status of women through female suffrage.3 However, the more likely historical explanation

in Who cared for the carers?
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, but encompassed a variety of practices from the physical and chemical sciences.13 The adoption of experimental methods was thus as diverse as the ‘rise’ of the clinic and differed according to national contexts and to existing scientific traditions. With regard to nineteenth-century scientific sociability as well, both general trends and differences between the European nations may be Introduction 7 identified. As an urban bourgeoisie rose to power in the wake of the political upheaval of the first decades of the century, new forms of sociability developed in many

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium

, Head and Brain had similar dispositions. They saw patients with mental and nervous diseases and were both interested in mental phenomena. Both treated famous patients; Head, Neurologists.indb 59 06/01/2014 15:56:38 60  The neurologists Virginia Woolf; Brain, Winston Churchill. Each had research interests in aphasia as well as diseases of the peripheral nerves. Likewise, they both possessed interests in medical politics, as evidenced by their editorship of Brain. Head’s inclinations admittedly took him more towards research into the function of the nervous system

in The neurologists
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gain some insight into why it has become a costly personal, political and economic problem today. The health of nurses was an issue that was always taken seriously at the case study hospitals but each institution approached the problem differently and responses showed much variation over time. There were good reasons for this but the failure to adopt a coherent and consistent policy worked to the detriment of nurses’ health. This difficulty, noticeable at all three hospitals, helps explain the ambiguous treatment of occupational health within wider histories of

in Who cared for the carers?
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Politeness, sociability and the culture of medico-gentility

charitable project for the city’s wealthier citizens or as inmates for the workhouse in Marygate. Politically, York was administered by a corporation whose structures remained virtually unchanged from the twelfth century to the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.19 Composed of the Lord Mayor, twelve Aldermen, the Sheriffs and the Common Council, the corporation was, in effect, a closed shop, a self-perpetuating oligarchy drawn from the city’s mercantile elite. 16 Performing medicine Despite this, the corporation provided a key focus for a more popular engagement with

in Performing medicine

approach involves, in particular, placing the role of imperial power and the persistence of attitudes and relationships shaped by empire at the heart of historical understanding.5 The migration of doctors and the making of British general practice also form part of a broader framework of post-​war British social and political history marked by the end of empire and the movement to the former colonial power of hundreds of thousands of people from the Indian subcontinent. The dynamics set in motion by the British Empire outlasted its political structures. While the Empire

in Migrant architects of the NHS
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War and medicine in World War I Germany

doctors who had served in war and later recorded their personal experiences, or studies of social programmes and pension politics of war veterans – studies which generally focus on the post-war experiences of soldiers. The limited research available on German war-time medicine reflects this general scholarly trend. During and after the war, several medical accounts of the conflict appeared in print, but these are largely sanitation reports that: recorded and categorised the casualties of the war; recorded the general Introduction 5 organisation of the medical

in Recycling the disabled
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communications. Conclusion 281 To what extent were these scientific practices and performances in medical societies unique to Belgium? The considerable space given to civil engagement in the medical sciences was certainly related to particular socio-political circumstances. A strong tradition of liberalism and a hesitance towards state intervention, reflected also in the slow modernization of the country’s universities, may help to explain why much room was left to civil initiative in the sciences, which was essential for the success of private medical societies. On a

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
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the lifeblood not just of Australia, but of colonies in general. Ships were sources of labour, news, goods and food, ideas and government orders, but they also induced great anxiety. Most importantly, voyages were not separate from the social, political, cultural, and environmental contexts through which they began, passed, and ended. Through the experiences of people who travelled, I see voyages as assemblages: medical concerns, military priorities, social hierarchy, penal reform, mass migration, colonial politics, and

in Health, medicine, and the sea