Cartoons and British imperialism during the Attlee Labour
Charlotte Lydia Riley
This chapter explores the post-Second World War Labour government's imperial policies through their depiction in newspaper and magazine cartoons. The chapter uses cartoon representations of news stories to explore the popular perception of the Labour Party's approach to imperial affairs. In doing so, it is focused on high party politics and imperial foreign policy, but it approaches this subject from a popular cultural viewpoint; in this way, it aims to reinsert the ‘ordinary’ reader's gaze into a political history.
In recent years numerous scholars have published studies on the views of Punch on British politics, foreign policy, and imperialism, especially from the 1870s to the 1910s, which show that Punch was critical of British foreign and imperial ventures. This chapter shifts the focus onto the end of empire, exploring one of the few violent episodes of British decolonisation, the case of Cyprus. During the early hours of 1 April 1955, in what the British soon realised was no April Fool's Day joke, the Greek Cypriot nationalist group EOKA
Imperial heroes embodied the symbolic implementation of the colonial project and performed a highly mythologized meeting between conquerors and conquered. They were a crucial element of the 'European encounter with Africa' that took place as part of the Scramble for Africa. The book explores systematically the multiple outlets through which heroes of the British and French empires were celebrated, how their reputations were made over several decades and who sustained them. It looks at the general socio-cultural and political trends prevalent in Britain and France, and considers micro-economic tendencies and technological developments in the cultural industry that the development of legends revolving around imperial heroes. The book allows the reader to grasp the variety of print and audiovisual media, genres and formats through which meanings were conveyed, allowing imperial heroes to reach a 'public presence'. Two major aspects invested imperial heroes with a role in society. First is the use of their image as political argument or their own political roles. The other is the values that they embodied through their own personal dedication above and beyond the call of duty. The book presents the micro-histories of the making of the legends surrounding the figures of Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand and the Sirdar Kitchener. It details how a war correspondent George Warrington Steevens, and a publisher, Blackwood and Sons, converted the fall of Khartoum to market 'With Kitchener to Khartoum' as patriotic writing.
Sarukhan’s al-Masri Effendi cartoons in the first half of the
the Egyptians and their character . The character is therefore best seen as a far more complex one than commonly believed, as both a critique of internal Egyptian politics and society (with inflections dependent on understandings of class and gender), and an affectionate (but contested) embodiment of the nation. In what follows, I chart the origins of the character in its home context of the satirical review Ruz al-Yusuf ; explore the broader cultural context from which al-Masri Effendi emerged and drew his relevance; and examine his contested status as either
Christian Aid: the new face of Christian responsibility
Religion does not figure strongly in histories of British decolonisation. While scholarship does assess how Christian churches overseas adapted and adjusted to the declining empire, little attention has been paid to the changing relationship between religion and empire within Britain at this time. Sarah Stockwell's work on Archbishop Fisher has reinstated the upper Anglican Church hierarchy in our wider understanding of the political discussions and processes through
Linley Sambourne, who served as Tenniel's deputy until Tenniel retired in 1901) reveal about how the British understood their role and their empire's role in the Ottoman Empire and in the world at large.
Several conditions for my inquiry require clarification. First, there were clearly other influential illustrated newspapers and magazines in Britain besides the, in general, Whiggishly Liberal Punch , ranging across the political spectrum (such as Judy on the Tory side; the Illustrated London News in the centre; and, historically, Fun to
growing numbers of sojourning and resident foreign communities. In particular, the International Settlement in Shanghai hosted a cosmopolitan community. 6 Law underpinned the growth of this community and the development of foreign commercial interests. Extraterritoriality provided British consuls and the British Chief Judge in Shanghai with considerable scope to adjudicate cases that had significant social, economic and political ramifications for British subjects and companies. Despite the importance of British consular jurisdiction, scholarly interest of
policy focused on extending economic and political influence from the mountain passes of northern India to Xinjiang. The oasis towns of southern and western Xinjiang, historically part of the Silk Road, drew merchants from across Central Asia and Siberia. This included growing numbers of Indian traders importing, amongst other products, silks, teas and spices. Indian moneylenders joined them, making their fortunes by loaning to Chinese, Russian and other Indian subjects, and supported the transfrontier trade.
From the late nineteenth to the early twentieth centuries
of international aid.
Britain's participation in this campaign reveals the close relationship between humanitarian aid and the politics of empire in the post-war period. Although the FFHC was a global movement, it also informed, and was informed by, specific national experiences. Participants in Madagascar, for example, brought what the FAO described as ‘the concrete experience of dealing with the serious problems that inevitably surround the development of a newly liberated country’. 6 Britain's own participation was shaped by the legacies of
The Dutch colonial world during Queen Wilhelmina’s reign,
photography across a transnational realm that included overseas colonies. Pakubuwono X's photograph album is but one of many examples discussed throughout this book of how both elite and ordinary subjects of the Dutch queen in the East Indies, Indonesians as well as Europeans, used photographs to make subtle political communications with Wilhelmina and each other. These encounters included diplomatic exchanges, appeals to a powerful institution for recognition and negotiations of subjecthood. Pakubuwono X's photograph is also one among countless examples of visual